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Nobilissimus
NOBILISSIMUS ( Latin
Latin
: "most noble"), in Byzantine Greek NōBELISSIMOS (Greek: νωβελίσσιμος), was one of the highest imperial titles in the late Roman and Byzantine empires. The feminine form of the title was NOBILISSIMA. CONTENTS * 1 History and functions * 2 Nobilissimi * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORY AND FUNCTIONS "Prōtonōbelissimos" from the codicil of the Sicilian admiral Christodulus The term nobilissimus originated as an epithet to the title of Caesar , whose holder was the Roman and Byzantine emperor's heir-apparent and who would, after Geta in 198, be addressed nobilissimus Caesar. According to the historian Zosimus , Emperor Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(r. 306–337) first created the nobilissimus into a separate dignity, so as to honour some of his relatives without implying a claim to the imperial throne
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George II Of Georgia
GEORGE II (Georgian : გიორგი II, Giorgi II) (c. 1054 – 1112), of the Bagrationi Dynasty
Dynasty
, was a king of Georgia from 1072 to 1089. He was a son and successor of Bagrat IV and his wife Borena of Alania
Alania
. Unable to deal effectively with the constant Seljuk Turkish attacks and overwhelmed by internal problems in his kingdom, George was forced to abdicate in favor of his energetic son, David IV , to whom he remained a nominal co-ruler until his death in 1112. He also held the high Byzantine titles of curopalates (c. 1060) and caesar (c. 1081). CONTENTS * 1 Early reign * 2 Seljuk invasions * 3 Deposition * 4 Ancestry * 5 References EARLY REIGNGeorge’s childhood coincided with the civil war between his father, Bagrat IV (r
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Robert Guiscard
ROBERT GUISCARD (c. 1015 – 17 July 1085) was a Norman adventurer remembered for the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily
Sicily
. Robert was born into the Hauteville family in Normandy
Normandy
, went on to become Count of Apulia and Calabria (1057–1059), and then Duke of Apulia and Calabria and Duke of Sicily
Sicily
(1059–1085), and shortly Prince of Benevento
Benevento
(1078-1081) before returning the title to the Pope. His sobriquet, in contemporary Latin
Latin
Viscardus and Old French Viscart, is often rendered "the Resourceful", "the Cunning", "the Wily", "the Fox", or "the Weasel". In Italian sources he is often Roberto il Guiscardo or Roberto d'Altavilla (from Robert de Hauteville)
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Bagrat IV Of Georgia
BAGRAT IV (Georgian : ბაგრატ IV) (1018 – 24 November 1072), of the Bagrationi dynasty
Bagrationi dynasty
, was the King of Georgia from 1027 to 1072. During his long and eventful reign, Bagrat sought to repress the great nobility and to secure Georgia's sovereignty from the Byzantine and Seljuqid empires. In a series of intermingled conflicts, Bagrat succeeded in defeating his most powerful vassals and rivals of the Liparitid family, bringing several feudal enclaves under his control, and reducing the kings of Lorri and Kakheti
Kakheti
, as well as the emir of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
to vassalage. Like many medieval Caucasian rulers, he bore several Byzantine titles, particularly those of nobelissimos , curopalates , and sebastos . CONTENTS * 1 Early reign * 2 Dynastic wars * 3 Seljuk attacks * 4 References EARLY REIGN Bagrat IV's coin stuck between 1060 and 1072
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Justinian I
JUSTINIAN I (/dʒʌˈstɪniən/ ; Latin
Latin
: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek : Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós) (c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as JUSTINIAN THE GREAT and also SAINT JUSTINIAN THE GREAT in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
, was the Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire , and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire". Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the "last Roman " in modern historiography
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Hannibalianus
FLAVIUS HANNIBALIANUS (also HANNIBALLIANUS; died September 337) was a member of the Constantinian dynasty , which ruled over the Roman Empire in the 4th century. Follis
Follis
of "King" Hannibalianus. Hannibalianus
Hannibalianus
was the son of Flavius Dalmatius , and thus nephew of Constantine I
Constantine I
. Hannibalianus
Hannibalianus
and his brother Dalmatius
Dalmatius
were educated at Tolosa by rhetor Exuperius (who is probably not to be identified with St. Exuperius ). In 320s, Constantine called Flavius Dalmatius and his sons to Constantinople. Hannibalianus
Hannibalianus
married Constantine's elder daughter, Constantina , in 335, and was made nobilissimus
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Tzachas
TZACHAS (Greek : Τζαχᾶς), also known as CHAKA BEY (Turkish : Çaka Bey) was an 11th-century Seljuk Turkish military commander who ruled an independent state based in Smyrna
Smyrna
(present-day İzmir
İzmir
). Originally in Byzantine
Byzantine
service, he rebelled and seized Smyrna, much of the Aegean coastlands of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the islands lying off shore in 1088–91. At the peak of his power, he even declared himself Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor, and sought to assault Constantinople
Constantinople
in conjunction with the Pechenegs . In 1092, a Byzantine
Byzantine
naval expedition under John Doukas inflicted a heavy defeat on him and retook Lesbos
Lesbos
, while in the next year he was treacherously slain by his son-in-law Kilij Arslan I
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J. B. Bury
JOHN BAGNELL BURY, FBA (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927), known as J. B. BURY, was an Irish historian , classical scholar , Medieval Roman historian and philologist . He objected to the label "Byzantinist" explicitly in the preface to the 1889 edition of his Later Roman Empire. He held the position of Erasmus Smith\'s Professor of Modern History at Trinity College Dublin
Trinity College Dublin
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Writings * 3 "History as a science" * 4 On the Argument from Ignorance and the burden of proof * 5 Bibliography * 5.1 As editor * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYBury was born and raised in Clontibret
Clontibret
, County Monaghan
County Monaghan
, where his father was Rector of the Anglican
Anglican
Church of Ireland
Ireland

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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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The Oxford Dictionary Of Byzantium
THE OXFORD DICTIONARY OF BYZANTIUM (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press . With more than 5,000 entries, it contains comprehensive information in English on topics relating to the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. It was edited by Dr. Alexander Kazhdan , and was first published in 1991. Kazhdan was a professor at Princeton University who became a Senior Research Associate at Dumbarton Oaks
Dumbarton Oaks
, Washington, DC
Washington, DC
before his death. He contributed to many of the articles in the Dictionary and always signed his initials A.K. at the end of the article to indicate his contribution. DESCRIPTIONThe dictionary is available in printed and e-reference text versions from Oxford Reference Online . It covers the main historical events of Byzantium, as well as important social and religious events
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Alexander Kazhdan
ALEXANDER PETROVICH KAZHDAN (Russian : Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Кажда́н; 3 September 1922 – 29 May 1997) was a Soviet-American Byzantinist . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Soviet * 1.2 United States
United States
* 2 Notes * 3 Further reading BIOGRAPHYSOVIETBorn in Moscow
Moscow
, Kazhdan was educated at the Pedagogical Institute of Ufa
Ufa
and the University of Moscow
Moscow
, where he studied with the historian of medieval England , Evgenii Kosminskii
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Komnenian Period
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE or BYZANTIUM is a term conventionally used by historians to describe the Greek ethnic and speaking Roman Empire
Roman Empire
of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, centered on its capital of Constantinople
Constantinople
. Having survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
continued to function until its conquest by the Ottoman Turks
Ottoman Turks
in 1453. In the context of Byzantine history, the period from about 1081 to about 1185 is often known as the KOMNENIAN or COMNENIAN period, after the Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty
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Christodulus
CHRISTODULUS (died 1131) (Greek : Χριστόδουλος, Christodoulos, meaning "Slave of Christ;" Arabic : Abd al-Rahman al-Nasrani, meaning "Slave of the All Merciful, the Nazarene "), probably either a Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
, the name was a common Greek Orthodox name, or a Moslem
Moslem
convert, was the first emir of Palermo (later ammiratus ammiratorum ) under the Normans. His rise occurred after the death of Count Simon of Sicily in 1105 and he held the position of emir by 1107, during the regency of Adelaide del Vasto for her son, King Roger II of Sicily
Roger II of Sicily

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Epithet
An EPITHET (from Greek : ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added" ) is a BYNAME, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, objects, and binomial nomenclature . It can also be a descriptive title: for example, Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
, Suleiman the Magnificent or Władysław I the Elbow-high . In contemporary use, epithet often refers to an abusive, defamatory, or derogatory phrase, such as a racial or animal epithet . This use as a euphemism is criticized by Martin Manser and other proponents of linguistic prescription
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