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Nobilissimus
NOBILISSIMUS ( Latin : "most noble"), in Byzantine Greek NōBELISSIMOS (Greek: νωβελίσσιμος), was one of the highest imperial titles in the late Roman and Byzantine empires. The feminine form of the title was NOBILISSIMA. CONTENTS * 1 History and functions * 2 Nobilissimi * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORY AND FUNCTIONS "Prōtonōbelissimos" from the codicil of the Sicilian admiral Christodulus The term nobilissimus originated as an epithet to the title of Caesar , whose holder was the Roman and Byzantine emperor's heir-apparent and who would, after Geta in 198, be addressed nobilissimus Caesar. According to the historian Zosimus , Emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306–337) first created the nobilissimus into a separate dignity, so as to honour some of his relatives without implying a claim to the imperial throne. The title thus came to be awarded to members of the imperial family, coming in rank immediately after that of Caesar, and remained so throughout the early and middle Byzantine period, until the mid-11th century. In the Klētorologion of Philotheos, written in 899, the rank's insignia are described as a purple tunic, mantle and belt, indicating the exalted position of its holder. Their award by the emperor in a special ceremony signified the elevation of the recipient to the office
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence
Terence

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Byzantine Greek
MEDIEVAL GREEK, also known as BYZANTINE GREEK, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th-6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages , conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire . This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine Studies, or Byzantinology , the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire. The beginning of Medieval Greek is occasionally dated back to as early as the 4th century, either to 330 AD, when the political centre of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople , or to 395 AD, the division of the Empire. However, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political as opposed to cultural and linguistic developments. Indeed, by this time the spoken language, particularly pronunciation, had already shifted towards modern forms. The conquests of Alexander , and the ensuing Hellenistic period , had caused Greek to spread to peoples throughout Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, altering the spoken language's pronunciation and structure
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracuse (663–669, Eastern) LANGUAGES * Latin (official until 610) * Greek (official after 610) * Regional / local languages RELIGION * Before AD 380: Imperial cult -driven polytheism * From AD 380: Christiani
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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe
. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the _Roman Empire_ (Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. _Basileia tôn Rhōmaiōn_; Latin : _Imperium Romanum_), or _Romania_ (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans". Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I
Constantine I
(r
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Christodulus
CHRISTODULUS (died 1131) (Greek : Χριστόδουλος, Christodoulos, meaning "Slave of Christ;" Arabic : Abd al-Rahman al-Nasrani, meaning "Slave of the All Merciful, the Nazarene "), probably either a Greek Orthodox , the name was a common Greek Orthodox name, or a Moslem
Moslem
convert, was the first emir of Palermo (later ammiratus ammiratorum ) under the Normans. His rise occurred after the death of Count Simon of Sicily in 1105 and he held the position of emir by 1107, during the regency of Adelaide del Vasto for her son, King Roger II of Sicily . Originally, his position was considered that of a successor to the old Moslem
Moslem
governors of Palermo, but the importance of Palermo
Palermo
as the capital of the county and permanent seat of the Norman court, one of the largest cities in Europe and a major trading port, made his position of national significance. He was put in charge of the building of a navy and he received the titles of protonobilissimus and protonotary and was the president of the council of state. As such, he holds the first place in the development of the role of an admiral. In 1123, Christodulus led a naval expedition against the Mahdia , but it failed miserably. He had appointed as his second-in-command George of Antioch , who was also a Greek, and the latter's brilliance in defeat began to overshadow the old emir
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Epithet
An EPITHET (from Greek : ἐπίθετον _epitheton_, neuter of ἐπίθετος _epithetos_, "attributed, added" ) is a BYNAME, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, objects, and binomial nomenclature . It can also be a descriptive title: for example, Alfred the Great , Suleiman the Magnificent or Władysław I the Elbow-high . In contemporary use, _epithet_ often refers to an abusive, defamatory, or derogatory phrase, such as a racial or animal epithet . This use as a euphemism is criticized by Martin Manser and other prescriptive linguists . CONTENTS * 1 Linguistics * 2 Literature * 3 Religion * 4 Rhetoric * 5 Politics and military * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links LINGUISTICSIn linguistics , an epithet only can be a metaphor , essentially a reduced or condensed use of apposition . Epithets are sometimes attached to a person's name or appear in place of his or her name, as what might be described as a glorified nickname or sobriquet . An epithet is linked to its noun by long-established usage. Not every adjective is an epithet. An epithet is especially recognizable when its function is largely decorative, such as if "cloud-gathering Zeus" is employed other than in reference to conjuring up a storm
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Caesar (title)
CAESAR (English pl. CAESARS; Latin
Latin
pl. Caesares) is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
, the Roman dictator
Roman dictator
. The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called " Year of the Four Emperors
Year of the Four Emperors
". CONTENTS * 1 Sole Roman Emperor
Emperor
* 2 Dynastic title * 3 Late Empire * 3.1 The Third Century Crisis * 3.2 Tetrarchy * 3.3 After the Tetrarchy * 4 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
* 5 Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* 6 Legacy * 6.1 Name * 6.2 Historiography * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography SOLE ROMAN EMPERORFor political and personal reasons Octavian chose to emphasize his relationship with Caesar by styling himself simply " Imperator
Imperator
Caesar" (whereto the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
added the honorific Augustus , "Majestic" or "Venerable," in 27 BC), without any of the other elements of his full name
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Publius Septimius Geta
GETA (Publius, or Lucius, Septimius Geta Augustus; 7 March 189 -26 December 211), was a Roman emperor
Roman emperor
who ruled with his father Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
and his older brother Caracalla
Caracalla
from 209, when he was named Augustus
Augustus
like his brother who had held the title since 198. Severus died in 211, and although he intended for his sons to rule together, they proved incapable of sharing power culminating with the murder of Geta in December of that year. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Joint Emperor * 3 Portrait * 4 Gallery * 5 Severan family tree * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links EARLY LIFEGeta was the younger son of Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
by his second wife Julia Domna . Geta was born in Rome
Rome
, at a time when his father was only a provincial governor at the service of Emperor Commodus
Commodus
. Conflicts between Geta and Caracalla
Caracalla
were constant and often required the mediation of their mother. To appease his younger son, Septimius Severus gave Geta the title of Augustus
Augustus
in 209. During the campaign against the Britons in the early 3rd century CE, imperial propaganda promoted the image of a happy family that shared the responsibilities of rule
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Zosimus
ZOSIMUS (Greek : Ζώσιμος ; also known by the Latin
Latin
name ZOSIMUS HISTORICUS, i.e. " Zosimus the Historian"; fl. 490s–510s) was a Greek historian who lived in Constantinople
Constantinople
during the reign of the Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius I (491–518). According to Photius , he was a _comes _, and held the office of "advocate" of the imperial treasury. CONTENTS * 1 _Historia Nova_ * 2 Editions * 3 References * 4 External links _HISTORIA NOVA_Zosimus' _ Historia Nova _ (Ἱστορία Νέα, "New History") is written in Greek in six books. For the period from 238 to 270, he apparently uses Dexippus ; for the period from 270 to 404, Eunapius ; and after 407, Olympiodorus . His dependence upon his sources is made clear by the change in tone and style between the Eunapian and Olympiodoran sections, and by the gap left in between them. In the Eunapian section, for example, he is pessimistic and critical of Stilicho; in the Olympiodoran section, he offers precise figures and transliterations from the Latin, and favors Stilicho
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Constantine The Great
CONSTANTINE THE GREAT (Latin : _Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus_; Greek : Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February c. 272 AD – 22 May 337 AD), also known as CONSTANTINE I or SAINT CONSTANTINE (in the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
as SAINT CONSTANTINE THE GREAT, EQUAL-TO-THE-APOSTLES), was a Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
of Illyrian origin from 306 to 337 AD. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius , a Roman Army
Roman Army
officer, and his consort Helena . His father became _Caesar _, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian and Galerius
Galerius
. In 305, Constantius raised himself to the rank of _ Augustus
Augustus
_, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (Britain). Acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (modern-day York
York
) after his father's death in 306 AD, Constantine emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against the emperors Maxentius
Maxentius
and Licinius
Licinius
to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD. As emperor, Constantine enacted many administrative, financial, social, and military reforms to strengthen the empire
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Kletorologion
The KLēTOROLOGION OF PHILOTHEOS (Greek : Κλητορολόγιον), is the longest and most important of the Byzantine lists of offices and court precedence (Taktika ). It was published in September 899 during the reign of Emperor Leo VI the Wise (r. 886–912) by the otherwise unknown prōtospatharios and atriklinēs Philotheos. As atriklinēs, Philotheos would have been responsible for receiving the guests for the imperial banquets (klētοria) and for conducting them to their proper seating places according to their place in the imperial hierarchy . In the preface to his work, he explicitly states that he compiled this treatise as a "precise exposé of the order of imperial banquets, of the name and value of each title, complied on the basis of ancient klētοrologia", and recommends its adoption at the imperial table. SECTIONSPhilotheos's work survives only as an appendix within the last chapters (52–54) of the second book of a later treatise on imperial ceremonies known as the De Ceremoniis
De Ceremoniis
of Emperor Constantine Porphyrogennetos (r. 913–959)
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Purple
PURPLE is a color intermediate between blue and red . It is similar to violet , but unlike violet, which is a spectral color with its own wavelength on the visible spectrum of light, purple is a composite color made by combining red and blue. According to surveys In Europe and the U.S., purple is the color most often associated with royalty, magic, mystery and piety. When combined with pink, it is associated with eroticism , femininity and seduction . Purple was the color worn by Roman magistrates; it became the imperial color worn by the rulers of the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Roman Empire , and later by Roman Catholic bishops . Similarly in Japan, the color is traditionally associated with the Emperor and aristocracy. The complementary color of purple is yellow . CONTENTS* 1 Etymology and definitions * 1.1 Varieties and uses of purple * 1.2 Purple vs
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Alexios I Komnenos
ALEXIOS I KOMNENOS (Greek : Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός, 1048 or 1056 – 15 August 1118), was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty , it was during his reign that the Komnenos family came to full power. Inheriting a collapsing empire and faced with constant warfare during his reign against both the Seljuq Turks in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the Normans in the western Balkans , Alexios was able to curb the Byzantine decline and begin the military, financial, and territorial recovery known as the _ Komnenian restoration _. The basis for this recovery were various reforms initiated by Alexios. His appeals to Western Europe for help against the Turks were also the catalyst that likely contributed to the convoking of the Crusades
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Komnenian Period
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE or BYZANTIUM is a term conventionally used by historians to describe the Greek ethnic and speaking Roman Empire
Roman Empire
of the Middle Ages , centered on its capital of Constantinople
Constantinople
. Having survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during Late Antiquity , the Byzantine Empire continued to function until its conquest by the Ottoman Turks in 1453. In the context of Byzantine history, the period from about 1081 to about 1185 is often known as the KOMNENIAN or COMNENIAN period, after the Komnenos dynasty. Together, the five Komnenian emperors (Alexios I , John II , Manuel I , Alexios II and Andronikos I ) ruled for 104 years, presiding over a sustained, though ultimately incomplete, restoration of the military, territorial, economic and political position of the Byzantine Empire. As a human institution, Byzantium
Byzantium
under the Komnenoi played a key role in the history of the Crusades in the Holy Land , while also exerting enormous cultural and political influence in Europe, the Near East, and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea
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Hannibalianus
FLAVIUS HANNIBALIANUS (also HANNIBALLIANUS; died September 337) was a member of the Constantinian dynasty , which ruled over the Roman Empire in the 4th century. Follis
Follis
of "King" Hannibalianus. Hannibalianus
Hannibalianus
was the son of Flavius Dalmatius , and thus nephew of Constantine I
Constantine I
. Hannibalianus
Hannibalianus
and his brother Dalmatius
Dalmatius
were educated at Tolosa by rhetor Exuperius (who is probably not to be identified with St. Exuperius ). In 320s, Constantine called Flavius Dalmatius and his sons to Constantinople. Hannibalianus
Hannibalianus
married Constantine's elder daughter, Constantina
Constantina
, in 335, and was made nobilissimus. In occasion of the campaign of Constantine against the Sassanids (337), Hannibalianus
Hannibalianus
was made Rex Regum et Ponticarum Gentium, "King of the Kings and of the Pontic People". Probably it was Constantine's intention to put Hannibalianus
Hannibalianus
on the Pontic throne, after the defeat of the Persians. The Persian campaign did not take place, because Constantine died in May 337. Hannibalianus
Hannibalianus
died, as did his brother, in the purge of the imperial family that followed
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