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Nobilissimus
Nobilissimus
Nobilissimus
(Latin: "most noble"), in Byzantine Greek
Byzantine Greek
nōbelissimos (Greek: νωβελίσσιμος),[1] was one of the highest imperial titles in the late Roman and Byzantine empires. The feminine form of the title was nobilissima.Contents1 History and functions 2 Nobilissimi 3 References 4 SourcesHistory and functions[edit]"Prōtonōbelissimos" from the codicil of the Sicilian admiral ChristodulusThe term nobilissimus originated as an epithet to the title of Caesar, whose holder was the Roman and Byzantine emperor's heir-apparent and who would, after Geta in 198, be addressed nobilissimus Caesar.[2] According to the historian Zosimus, Emperor Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(r. 306–337) first created the nobilissimus into a separate dignity,[1] so as to honour some of his relatives without implying a claim to the imperial throne
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Hannibalianus
Flavius Hannibalianus
Hannibalianus
(also Hanniballianus; died September 337) was a member of the Constantinian dynasty, which ruled over the Roman Empire in the 4th century. Follis
Follis
of "King" Hannibalianus. Hannibalianus
Hannibalianus
was the son of Flavius Dalmatius, and thus nephew of Constantine I.[1][2] Hannibalianus
Hannibalianus
and his brother Dalmatius
Dalmatius
were educated at Tolosa by rhetor Exuperius
Exuperius
(who is probably not to be identified with St. Exuperius). In 320s, Constantine called Flavius Dalmatius and his sons to Constantinople
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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The Oxford Dictionary Of Byzantium
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium
Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium
(often abbreviated to ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press. With more than 5,000 entries, it contains comprehensive information in English on topics relating to the Byzantine Empire. It was edited by Dr. Alexander Kazhdan, and was first published in 1991.[1] Kazhdan was a professor at Princeton University who became a Senior Research Associate at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC
Washington, DC
before his death. He contributed to many of the articles in the Dictionary and always signed his initials A.K. at the end of the article to indicate his contribution. Description[edit] The dictionary is available in printed and e-reference text versions from Oxford Reference Online. It covers the main historical events of Byzantium, as well as important social and religious events
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Alexander Kazhdan
Alexander Petrovich Kazhdan (Russian: Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Кажда́н; 3 September 1922 – 29 May 1997) was a Soviet-American Byzantinist.Contents1 Biography1.1 Soviet 1.2 United States2 Notes 3 Further readingBiography[edit] Soviet[edit] Born in Moscow, Kazhdan was educated at the Pedagogical Institute of Ufa
Ufa
and the University of Moscow, where he studied with the historian of medieval England, Evgenii Kosminskii.[1] A post-war Soviet initiative to revive Russian-language
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J. B. Bury
John Bagnell Bury, FBA (/ˈbɛri/; 16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927), known as J. B. Bury, was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman historian and philologist. He objected to the label "Byzantinist" explicitly in the preface to the 1889 edition of his Later Roman Empire. He held the position of Erasmus Smith's Professor of Modern History at Trinity College Dublin.Contents1 Biography 2 Writings 3 "History as a science" 4 On the argument from ignorance and the burden of proof 5 Bibliography5.1 As editor6 See also 7 Notes 8 External linksBiography[edit] Bury was born and raised in Clontibret, County Monaghan, where his father was Rector of the Anglican
Anglican
Church of Ireland
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Tzachas
Tzachas
Tzachas
(Greek: Τζαχᾶς), also known as Chaka Bey (Turkish: Çaka Bey)[dn 1] was an 11th-century Seljuk Turkish military commander who ruled an independent state based in Smyrna
Smyrna
(present-day İzmir). Originally in Byzantine
Byzantine
service, he rebelled and seized Smyrna, much of the Aegean coastlands of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the islands lying off shore in 1088–91. At the peak of his power, he even declared himself Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor, and sought to assault Constantinople
Constantinople
in conjunction with the Pechenegs
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Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
(c. 1015 – 17 July 1085) was a Norman adventurer remembered for the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily. Robert was born into the Hauteville family
Hauteville family
in Normandy, went on to become Count of Apulia
Apulia
and Calabria (1057–1059), and then Duke of Apulia
Apulia
and Calabria and Duke of Sicily
Sicily
(1059–1085), and briefly Prince of Benevento
Benevento
(1078–1081) before returning the title to the Pope. His sobriquet, in contemporary Latin
Latin
Viscardus and Old French
Old French
Viscart, is often rendered "the Resourceful", "the Cunning", "the Wily", "the Fox", or "the Weasel"
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George II Of Georgia
George II (Georgian: გიორგი II, Giorgi II) (c. 1054 – 1112), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a king of Georgia from 1072 to 1089. He was a son and successor of Bagrat IV and his wife Borena of Alania. Unable to deal effectively with the constant Seljuk Turkish attacks and overwhelmed by internal problems in his kingdom, George was forced to abdicate in favor of his energetic son David IV, to whom he remained a nominal co-ruler until his death in 1112. He also held the high Byzantine titles of curopalates (c. 1060) and caesar (c. 1081).Contents1 Early reign 2 Seljuk invasions 3 Deposition 4 Ancestry 5 ReferencesEarly reign[edit] George’s childhood coincided with the civil war between his father, Bagrat IV (r. 1027–1072), and the rebellious Georgian feudal lord Liparit, who succeeded in temporarily driving Bagrat into the Byzantine Empire, and crowned George as king at the Ruisi Cathedral between 1050 and 1053, under the regency of Bagrat's sister Gurandukht
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Bagrat IV Of Georgia
Bagrat IV (Georgian: ბაგრატ IV) (1018 – 24 November 1072), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was the King of Georgia from 1027 to 1072. During his long and eventful reign, Bagrat sought to repress the great nobility and to secure Georgia's sovereignty from the Byzantine and Seljuqid
Seljuqid
empires. In a series of intermingled conflicts, Bagrat succeeded in defeating his most powerful vassals and rivals of the Liparitid family, bringing several feudal enclaves under his control, and reducing the kings of Lorri and Kakheti, as well as the emir of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
to vassalage. Like many medieval Caucasian rulers, he bore several Byzantine titles, particularly those of nobelissimos, curopalates, and sebastos.Contents1 Early reign 2 Dynastic wars 3 Seljuk attacks 4 See also 5 ReferencesEarly reign[edit]Bagrat IV's coin stuck between 1060 and 1072.He was the son of the king George I (r
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Justinian I
Justinian I
Justinian I
(/dʒʌˈstɪniən/; Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint
Saint
Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church,[3][4] was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire
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Komnenian Period
The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
or Byzantium
Byzantium
is a term conventionally used by historians to describe the Greek ethnic and speaking Roman Empire
Roman Empire
of the Middle Ages, centered on its capital of Constantinople. Having survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during Late Antiquity, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
continued to function until its conquest by the Ottoman Turks in 1453. In the context of Byzantine history, the period from about 1081 to about 1185 is often known as the Komnenian or Comnenian period, after the Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty
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Byzantine Greek
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language
Greek language
between the end of Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire. This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek
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Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
Komnenos
(Greek: Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός, c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty, it was during his reign that the Komnenos
Komnenos
family came to full power. Inheriting a collapsing empire and faced with constant warfare during his reign against both the Seljuq Turks
Seljuq Turks
in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the Normans in the western Balkans, Alexios was able to curb the Byzantine decline and begin the military, financial, and territorial recovery known as the Komnenian restoration. The basis for this recovery were various reforms initiated by Alexios
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