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Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize (Swedish: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901,[3] it has been awarded annually (with some exceptions) to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".[4] As per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year
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Irish Republican Brotherhood
The Irish Republican Brotherhood
Irish Republican Brotherhood
(IRB; Irish: Bráithreachas Phoblacht na hÉireann) was a secret oath-bound fraternal organisation dedicated to the establishment of an "independent democratic republic" in Ireland between 1858 and 1924.[1] Its counterpart in the United States of America was organised by John O'Mahony
John O'Mahony
and became known as the Fenian Brotherhood
Fenian Brotherhood
(later Clan na Gael). The members of both wings of the movement are often referred to as "Fenians"
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Social Science
Social science
Social science
is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It in turn has many branches, each of which is considered a social science. The social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, economics, history, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science , psychology, public health, and sociology. The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original 'science of society', established in the 19th century. A more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences can be found at Outline of social science. Positivist
Positivist
social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense
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International Court Of Justice
The International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
(abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court)[1] is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN). It settles legal disputes between member states and gives advisory opinions to authorized UN organs and specialized agencies. It comprises a panel of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and Security Council
Security Council
for nine-year terms
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Permanent Court Of Arbitration
The Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration
(PCA) is an intergovernmental organization located at The Hague
The Hague
in the Netherlands. The PCA is not a court "in the traditional sense", but provides services of arbitral tribunal to resolve disputes between member states, international organizations, or private parties arising out of international agreements.[4][5] The cases span a range of legal issues involving territorial and maritime boundaries, sovereignty, human rights, international investment, and international and regional trade
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Neville Chamberlain
Arthur Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
FRS (/ˈtʃeɪmbərlɪn/; 18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
from May 1937 to May 1940. Chamberlain is best known for his foreign policy of appeasement, and in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement
Munich Agreement
in 1938, conceding the German-speaking Sudetenland
Sudetenland
region of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
to Germany
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Inter-Parliamentary Union
Union
Union
is the state of being united or joined. Union
Union
may also refer to:Contents1 Labor 2 Education 3 History and politics 4 Mathematics and computer science 5 Entertainment5.1 Music6 Places6.1 Canada 6.2 Paraguay 6.3 Philippines 6.4 Saint Vincent and the Grenadine
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Sweden
Coordinates: 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige[a]FlagGreater coat of armsMotto: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden"[a] "For Sweden
Sweden
– With the Times"[1]Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria[b] Thou ancient, thou freeRoyal anthem: Kungssången Song of the KingLocation of  Sweden  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [L
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Union Between Sweden And Norway
b. ^ The written Norwegian language
Norwegian language
ceased to exist in the first half of the 16th century and was replaced by Danish. Written Danish was still used during the union with Sweden, but was slightly norwegianized in the latter half of the 19th century. In 1885, the Storting
Storting
accepted Landsmål
Landsmål
as an official written language at par with Danish. c. ^ 1820: 2,585,000 in Sweden, and 970,000 in Norway.[1] 1905: 5,260,000 in Sweden, and 2,300,000 in Norway.[2] d. ^ The Swedish Riksdag
Riksdag
was a diet composed of four estates until 1866, when it was transformed into a bicameral legislature
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Personal Union
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.[1] A real union, by contrast, will involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch.[2] Personal unions can arise for several reasons, ranging from coincidence (a woman who is already married to a king becomes queen regnant, and their child inherits the crown of both countries; the King
King
of one country inherits the crown of another country) to virtual annexation (where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings)
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Bofors
Bofors
Bofors
AB is a Swedish arms manufacturer. The name has been associated with the iron industry and artillery manufacturing for more than 350 years.[1]Contents1 History 2 Bofors
Bofors
gun scandal 3 Present ownership 4 Products4.1 Guns 4.2 Missiles 4.3 Other products5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Located in Karlskoga, Sweden, the company originates from the hammering trip hammer mill "Boofors", which was founded as a royal state-owned company in 1646. The modern corporate structure was created in 1873 with the foundation of Aktiebolaget (AB) Bofors-Gullspång. A leading Swedish steel producer by the early 1870s, Bofors
Bofors
expanded into weapons manufacture when steel produced by the Siemens-Martin process
Siemens-Martin process
began to be used for gun manufacture. The company's first cannon workshop was opened in 1884
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Ballistite
Ballistite is a smokeless propellant made from two high explosives, nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. It was developed and patented by Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
in the late 19th century.Contents1 Military adoption 2 Development of cordite and unsuccessful claim by Nobel of patent infringement 3 See also 4 ReferencesMilitary adoption[edit] Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
patented Ballistite in 1887 while he was living in Paris. His formulation was composed of 10% camphor and equal parts nitroglycerine and collodion.[1] The camphor reacted with any acidic products of the chemical breakdown of the two explosives. This both stabilized the explosive against further decomposition and prevented spontaneous explosions. However, camphor tends to evaporate over time, leaving a potentially unstable mixture.[2] Nobel's patent specified that the nitrocellulose should be "of the well-known soluble kind"
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Dynamite
Dynamite
Dynamite
is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers. It was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
in Geesthacht, and patented in 1867. It rapidly gained wide-scale use as a safer alternative to black powder. Today dynamite is mainly used in the mining, quarrying, construction, and demolition industries. Dynamite
Dynamite
is still the product of choice for trenching applications, and as a cost-effective alternative to cast boosters
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Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museums
Imperial War Museums
(IWM) is a British national museum organisation with branches at five locations in England, three of which are in London. Founded as the Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
in 1917, the museum was intended to record the civil and military war effort and sacrifice of Britain and its Empire during the First World War. The museum's remit has since expanded to include all conflicts in which British or Commonwealth forces have been involved since 1914. As of 2012, the museum aims "to provide for, and to encourage, the study and understanding of the history of modern war and 'wartime experience'".[2] Originally housed in the Crystal Palace at Sydenham Hill, the museum opened to the public in 1920
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Physics
Physics
Physics
(from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), translit. physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis "nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural science that studies matter[4] and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force.[5] Physics
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Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry
is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.[1][2] Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions: cations and anions; hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force
Van der Waals force
bonds
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