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Nihilism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e NIHILISM (/ˈnaɪ.ᵻlɪzəm/ or /ˈniː.ᵻlɪzəm/ ; from the Latin
Latin
nihil, nothing) is a philosophical doctrine that suggests the lack of belief in one or more reputedly meaningful aspects of life. Most commonly, nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism , which argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value . Moral nihilists assert that there is no inherent morality , and that accepted moral values are abstractly contrived. Nihilism
Nihilism
may also take epistemological , ontological , or metaphysical forms, meaning respectively that, in some aspect, knowledge is not possible, or reality does not actually exist
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Intrinsic Value (ethics)
Instrumental and intrinsic value are technical labels for the two poles of an ancient dichotomy . People seem to reason differently about what they ought to do (good ends) and what they are able to do (good means). When people reason about ends, they apply the criterion INTRINSIC VALUE. When they reason about means they apply the criterion INSTRUMENTAL VALUE. Few question the existence of these two criteria, but their relative authority is in constant dispute. This article explains the meaning of and disputes about these two criteria for judging means and ends. Evidence is drawn from the work of four scholars. John Dewey
John Dewey
and John Fagg Foster provided arguments against the dichotomy, while Jacques Ellul
Jacques Ellul
and Anjan Chakravartty provided arguments in its favor
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Jean Baudrillard
JEAN BAUDRILLARD (/ˌboʊdriːˈɑːr/ ; French: ; 27 July 1929 – 6 March 2007) was a French sociologist , philosopher , cultural theorist , political commentator, and photographer . He is best known for his analyses of media , contemporary culture, and technological communication, as well as his formulation of concepts such as simulation and hyperreality . He wrote about diverse subjects, including consumerism , gender relations , economics , social history , art, Western foreign policy , and popular culture. Among his best known works are Simulacra and Simulation
Simulation
(1981), America (1986), and The Gulf War Did Not Take Place (1991). His work is frequently associated with postmodernism and specifically post-structuralism
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Doctrine
DOCTRINE (from Latin : doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or belief system . The Greek analogue is the etymology of catechism . Often doctrine specifically suggests a body of religious principles as it is promulgated by a church, but not necessarily; doctrine is also used to refer to a principle of law, in the common law traditions, established through a history of past decisions, such as the doctrine of self-defense , or the principle of fair use , or the more narrowly applicable first-sale doctrine . In some organizations, doctrine is simply defined as "that which is taught", in other words the basis for institutional teaching of its personnel internal ways of doing business
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Possible World
In philosophy and logic , the concept of a POSSIBLE WORLD is used to express modal claims . The concept of possible worlds is common in contemporary philosophical discourse but has been disputed. CONTENTS * 1 Possibility, necessity, and contingency * 2 Formal semantics of modal logics * 3 From modal logic to philosophical tool * 4 Possible-world theory in literary studies * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links POSSIBILITY, NECESSITY, AND CONTINGENCY Further information: Modal logic § The ontology of possibility Those theorists who use the concept of possible worlds consider the actual world to be one of the many possible worlds. For each distinct way the world could have been, there is said to be a distinct possible world; the actual world is the one we in fact live in
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Postmodernity
POSTMODERNITY (POST-MODERNITY or the POSTMODERN CONDITION) is the economic or cultural state or condition of society which is said to exist after modernity . Some schools of thought hold that modernity ended in the late 20th century – in the 1980s or early 1990s – and that it was replaced by postmodernity, while others would extend modernity to cover the developments denoted by postmodernity, while some believe that modernity ended after World War II. The idea of the post-modern condition is sometimes characterised as a culture stripped of its capacity to function in any linear or autonomous state as opposed to the progressive mindstate of Modernism
Modernism
. Postmodernity can mean a personal response to a postmodern society, the conditions in a society which make it postmodern or the state of being that is associated with a postmodern society as well an historical epoch
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Futures Studies
FUTURES STUDIES (also called FUTUROLOGY) is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. There is a debate as to whether this discipline is an art or science. In general, it can be considered as a branch of the social sciences and parallel to the field of history . History
History
studies the past, futures studies considers the future. Futures studies
Futures studies
(colloquially called "FUTURES" by many of the field's practitioners) seeks to understand what is likely to continue and what could plausibly change. Part of the discipline thus seeks a systematic and pattern-based understanding of past and present, and to determine the likelihood of future events and trends. Unlike the physical sciences where a narrower, more specified system is studied, futures studies concerns a much bigger and more complex world system
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Modernity
MODERNITY is a term of art used in the humanities and social sciences to designate both a historical period (the modern era ), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms , attitudes and practices that arose in post-medieval Europe and have developed since, in various ways and at various times, around the world. While it includes a wide range of interrelated historical processes and cultural phenomena (from fashion to modern warfare ), it can also refer to the subjective or existential experience of the conditions they produce, and their ongoing impact on human culture, institutions, and politics (Berman 2010 , 15–36)
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Theism
THEISM is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of either a deity or deities. In popular parlance, or when contrasted with deism, the term often describes the classical conception of god(s) that is found in the monotheistic and polytheistic religions; a belief in a god or in gods without the rejection of revelation as is characteristic of deism . The term theism derives from the Greek theos meaning "god". The term theism was first used by Ralph Cudworth (1617–1688). In Cudworth's definition, they are "strictly and properly called Theists, who affirm, that a perfectly conscious understanding being, or mind, existing of itself from eternity, was the cause of all other things". Atheism is commonly understood as rejection of theism in the broadest sense of theism, i.e. the rejection of belief in a god or gods. The claim that the existence of any deity is unknown or unknowable is agnosticism
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Theology
THEOLOGY is the critical study of the nature of the divine . It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities, seminaries and schools of divinity
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Paul Merwart
PAUL MERWART, or PAWEł MERWART (25 March 1855, Marianivka, Kherson Governorate , Ukraine
Ukraine
- 8 May 1902, Saint-Pierre, Martinique
Saint-Pierre, Martinique
) was a French-Polish illustrator and painter; mostly of portraits and genre scenes, inspired by the literature, the Bible and music. BIOGRAPHYHis mother was Polish and his father was a French soldier who was serving in the Crimean War
Crimean War
. He was raised in Lwów , then Poland
Poland
, now Ukraine
Ukraine
. At first, he studied technical subjects in Graz
Graz
. After being wounded in a duel, he went to recuperate in Italy. While there, he decided to pursue an artistic career instead
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Nihilist (other)
A NIHILIST is person who believes in nihilism , that existence has no objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value
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Probability
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability * v * t * e PROBABILITY is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. Probability
Probability
is quantified as a number between 0 and 1, where, loosely speaking, 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty. The higher the probability of an event, the more likely it is that the event will occur. A simple example is the tossing of a fair (unbiased) coin. Since the coin is fair, the two outcomes ("heads" and "tails") are both equally probable; the probability of "heads" equals the probability of "tails"; and since no other outcomes are possible, the probability of either "heads" or "tails" is 1/2 (which could also be written as 0.5 or 50%)
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Agnosticism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e AGNOSTICISM is the view that the existence of God
God
or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable . According to the philosopher William L. Rowe , "agnosticism is the view that human reason is incapable of providing sufficient rational grounds to justify either the belief that God
God
exists or the belief that God
God
does not exist". Agnosticism
Agnosticism
is a doctrine or set of tenets rather than a religion . English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley coined the word "agnostic" in 1869
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