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Niels Ferguson
Niels T. Ferguson (born 10 December 1965, Eindhoven) is a Dutch cryptographer and consultant who currently works for Microsoft. He has worked with others, including Bruce Schneier, designing cryptographic algorithms, testing algorithms and protocols, and writing papers and books. Among the designs Ferguson has contributed to is the AES finalist block cipher algorithm Twofish
Twofish
as well as the stream cipher Helix and the Skein hash function. In 1999, Niels Ferguson, together with Bruce Schneier
Bruce Schneier
and John Kelsey, developed the Yarrow algorithm
Yarrow algorithm
random number generator
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Blu-ray Disc
Blu-ray
Blu-ray
or Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD
DVD
format, and is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition (HDTV 720p and 1080p) and ultra high-definition resolution (2160p). The main application of Blu-ray
Blu-ray
is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
and Xbox One
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John Kelsey (cryptanalyst)
John Kelsey is a cryptographer who works at NIST. His research interests include cryptanalysis and design of symmetric cryptography primitives (block ciphers, stream ciphers, cryptographic hash functions, MACs), analysis and design of cryptographic protocols, cryptographic random number generation, electronic voting, side-channel attacks on cryptography implementations, and anonymizing communications systems. He previously worked at Certicom
Certicom
and Counterpane Internet Security. See also[edit]Yarrow algorithm, a family of cryptographic pseudorandom number generators Twofish, a symmetric key block cipherExternal links[edit]John Kelsey at DBLP John Kelsey at NISTThis article about a cryptographer is a stub
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Content Scramble System
The Content Scramble System (CSS) is a digital rights management (DRM) and encryption system employed on many commercially produced DVD-Video discs. CSS utilizes a proprietary 40-bit stream cipher algorithm
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DVD
DVD
DVD
(an abbreviation of "digital video disc"[5] or "digital versatile disc"[6][7]) is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips
Philips
and Sony
Sony
in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is widely used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD
DVD
players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs while having the same dimensions. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD. Such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be read and not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD
DVD
discs ( DVD-R
DVD-R
and DVD+R) can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and then function as a DVD-ROM
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Eindhoven
Eindhoven
Eindhoven
(Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɛi̯ntɦoːvə(n)] ( listen)) is a municipality and a city in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel
Dommel
and Gender streams.[8] The Gender was dammed short of the city centre in the 1950s and the Dommel
Dommel
still runs through the city. The city has a population of 223,220 in January 2015,[9] making it the fifth-largest municipality of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and the largest in the province of North Brabant. Neighbouring cities and towns include Son en Breugel, Nuenen, Geldrop-Mierlo, Heeze-Leende, Waalre, Veldhoven, Eersel, Oirschot
Oirschot
and Best. The agglomeration has a population of 337,487. The metropolitan area consists of 419,045 inhabitants. The city region has a population of 753,426
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HD DVD
HD DVD
DVD
(short for High Definition Digital Versatile Disc)[1] is a discontinued high-density optical disc format for storing data and playback of high-definition video.[2] Supported principally by Toshiba, HD DVD
DVD
was envisioned to be the suc
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Cryptographically Secure Pseudorandom Number Generator
A cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator (CSPRNG) or cryptographic pseudo-random number generator (CPRNG)[1] is a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) with properties that make it suitable for use in cryptography. Most cryptographic applications require random numbers, for example:key generation nonces one-time pads salts in certain signature schemes, including ECDSA, RSASSA-PSSThe "quality" of the randomness required for these applications varies. For example, creating a nonce in some protocols needs only uniqueness. On the other hand, generation of a master key requires a higher quality, such as more entropy. And in the case of one-time pads, the information-theoretic guarantee of perfect secrecy only holds if the key material comes from a true random source with high entropy. Ideally, the generation of random numbers in CSPRNGs uses entropy obtained from a high-quality source, generally the operating system's randomness API
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Edward Snowden
Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency
National Security Agency
(NSA) in 2013 without authorization
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Control Number (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification.Contents1 History 2 Format 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names
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International Standard Name Identifier
The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers. It is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education (fr) (ABES). External links[edit]Official websiteThis article relating to library science or information science is a stub
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The Bibliothèque nationale de France
France
(BnF, English: National Library of France"; French: [bi.bli.jɔ.tɛk na.sjɔ.nal də fʁɑ̃s]) is the national library of France, located in Paris. It is the national repository of all that is published in France
France
and also holds extensive historical collections.Contents1 History 2 New buildings 3 Mission 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection 5 Digital library 6 List of directors6.1 1369–1792 6.2 1792–present7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksHistory[edit]See also: History of the Bibliothèque nationale de France (fr)The National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace
Louvre Palace
by Charles V in 1368
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Algorithms
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ ( listen) AL-gə-ridh-əm) is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems. Algorithms can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks. An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time[1] and in a well-defined formal language[2] for calculating a function.[3] Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty),[4] the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite[5] number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output"[6] and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.[7] The concept of algorithm has existed for centuries and the use of the concept can be ascribed to Greek mathematicians, e.g
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Bruce Schneier
Bruce Schneier
Bruce Schneier
(/ˈʃnaɪ.ər/; born December 15, 1952[1]) is an American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. He is the author of several books on general security topics, computer security and cryptography. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute
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Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation (/ˈmaɪkrəˌsɒft/,[2][3] abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office
Microsoft Office
suite, and the Internet
Internet
Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox
Xbox
video game consoles and the Microsoft
Microsoft
Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers
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