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Nicolas Luckner
Nicolas, Count Luckner (German: Johann Nikolaus, Graf Luckner; 12 January 1722, Cham in der Oberpfalz
Cham in der Oberpfalz
– 4 January 1794, Paris) was a German officer in French service who rose to become a Marshal of France. Luckner grew up in Cham, in eastern Bavaria
Bavaria
and received his early education from the Jesuits in Passau. Before entering the French service, Luckner spent time in the Bavarian, Dutch and Hanoverian armies. He fought as a commander of hussars during the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) in the Hanoverian army against the French. Luckner joined the French army in 1763 with the rank of lieutenant general. In 1784 he became a Danish count. He supported the French Revolution, and the year 1791 saw Luckner become a Marshal of France. In 1791-92 Luckner served as the first commander of the Army of the Rhine
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers. It is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education (fr) (ABES). External links[edit]Official websiteThis article relating to library science or information science is a stub
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Guillotine
A guillotine (/ˈɡɪlətiːn/; French: [ɡijɔtin]) is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a tall, upright frame in which a weighted and angled blade is raised to the top and suspended. The condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is then released, to quickly fall and forcefully decapitate the victim with a single, clean pass so that the head falls into a basket below. The device is best known for its use in France, in particular during the French Revolution, where it was celebrated as the people's avenger by supporters of the revolution and vilified as the pre-eminent symbol of the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
by opponents.[1] The name dates from this period, but similar devices had been used elsewhere in Europe
Europe
over several centuries
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Flanders
Flanders
Flanders
(Dutch: Vlaanderen [ˈvlaːndərə(n)] ( listen), French: Flandre [flɑ̃dʁ], German: Flandern, [flɑndɛɹn]) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history. It is one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. The demonym associated with Flanders
Flanders
is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish
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Menen
Menen
Menen
(Dutch pronunciation: [ˈmeːnə(n)], French: Menin, West Flemish dialect: Mêenn [ˈmeːnən] or Mêende [ˈmeːndə]) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. The municipality comprises the city of Menen
Menen
proper and the towns of Lauwe and Rekkem. The city is situated on the French/Belgian border. On January 1, 2006, Menen
Menen
had a total population of 32,413. The total area is 33.07 km² which gives a population density of 980 inhabitants per km². The city of Menen
Menen
gives its name to the Menin Gate
Menin Gate
in Ypres
Ypres
which is a monument to those killed in World War I
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Kortrijk
Kortrijk
Kortrijk
(in English also Courtrai or Courtray;[2][3] official name in Dutch: Kortrijk, pronounced [ˈkɔrtrɛi̯k]; West Flemish: Kortryk or Kortrik, French: Courtrai, pronounced [kuʁtʁɛ]; Latin: Cortoriacum) is a Belgian city and municipality in the Flemish province of West Flanders. It is the capital and largest city of the judicial and administrative arrondissement of Kortrijk. The wider municipality comprises the city of Kortrijk
Kortrijk
proper and the villages of Aalbeke, Bellegem, Bissegem, Heule, Kooigem, Marke, and Rollegem. Kortrijk
Kortrijk
is also part of the cross-border Lille-Kortrijk-Tournai metropolitan area.[4][5] The city is on the river Leie, 42 km (26 mi) southwest of Ghent
Ghent
and 25 km (16 mi) northeast of Lille
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Lille
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Lille
Lille
(French pronunciation: [lil] ( listen); Dutch: Rijsel pronounced [ˈrɛi̯səl]; West Flemish: Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders
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Châlons-sur-Marne
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(French pronunciation: ​[ʃa.lɔ̃.ɑ̃.ʃɑ̃.paɲ] or [ʃɑ.lɔ̃.ɑ̃.ʃɑ̃.paɲ]) is a city in the Grand Est
Grand Est
region of France. It is the capital of the department of Marne, despite being only a quarter the size of the city of Reims. Formerly called Châlons-sur-Marne, the city was officially renamed in 1998
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National Convention
The National Convention
National Convention
(French: Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795 (4 Brumaire IV under the Convention's adopted calendar). The Convention came about when the Legislative Assembly, which had found it impossible to work with the king, decreed the provisional suspension of King Louis XVI
King Louis XVI
and the convocation of a National Convention to draw up a new constitution with no monarchy
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Choderlos De Laclos
Pierre Ambroise François Choderlos de Laclos (French: [pjɛʁ ɑ̃brwaːz fʁɑ̃.swɑ ʃɔdɛʁlo də laklo]; 18 October 1741 – 5 September 1803) was a French novelist, official, freemason and army general, best known for writing the epistolary novel Les Liaisons dangereuses (Dangerous Liaisons) (1782). A unique case in French literature, he was for a long time considered to be as scandalous a writer as the Marquis de Sade
Marquis de Sade
or Nicolas-Edme Rétif. He was a military officer with no illusions about human relations, and an amateur writer; however, his initial plan was to "write a work which departed from the ordinary, which made a noise, and which would remain on earth after his death"; from this point of view he mostly attained his goals, with the fame of his masterwork Les Liaisons dangereuses. It is one of the masterpieces of novelistic literature of the 18th century, which explores the amorous intrigues of the aristocracy
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Revolutionary Tribunal
The Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(French: Tribunal révolutionnaire; unofficially Popular Tribunal[1]) was a court which was instituted by the National Convention
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Carillon
A carillon (US: /ˈkærəlɒn/ or UK: /kəˈrɪljən/;[1] French: [kaʁijɔ̃]) is a musical instrument that is typically housed in the bell tower (belfry) of a church or municipal building. The instrument consists of at least 23 cast bronze, cup-shaped bells, which are played serially to produce a melody, or sounded together to play a chord
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French Revolution
The French Revolution
Revolution
(French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France
France
and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799. It was partially carried forward by Napoleon
Napoleon
during the later expansion of the French Empire. The Revolution
Revolution
overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon
Napoleon
who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond
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Imperial German Navy
The Imperial German Navy
Navy
(German: Kaiserliche Marine, "Imperial Navy") was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire. It existed between 1871 and 1919, growing out of the small Prussian Navy
Navy
(from 1867 the North German Federal Navy), which primarily had the mission of coastal defence. Kaiser Wilhelm II greatly expanded the navy, and enlarged its mission. The key leader was Admiral
Admiral
Alfred von Tirpitz, who greatly expanded the size and quality of the navy, while adopting the sea power theories of American strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan. The result was a naval arms race with Britain as the German navy grew to become one of the greatest maritime forces in the world, second only to the Royal Navy. The German surface navy proved ineffective during World War I; its only major engagement, the Battle of Jutland, was indecisive
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SMS Seeadler (Windjammer)
SMS Seeadler
SMS Seeadler
(Ger: sea eagle) was a three-master windjammer. She was one of the last fighting sailing ships to be used in war when she served as a merchant raider with Imperial Germany
Imperial Germany
in World War I. Built as the US-flagged Pass of Balmaha, she was captured by the German submarine SM U-36, and in 1916 converted to a commerce raider
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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