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Nickel-metal Hydride Battery
A nickel–metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery. The chemical reaction at the positive electrode is similar to that of the nickel–cadmium cell (NiCd), with both using nickel oxide hydroxide (NiOOH). However, the negative electrodes use a hydrogen-absorbing alloy instead of cadmium
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NIMH (other)
NIMH
NIMH
or NiMH may refer to:Nickel–metal hydride battery, a type of electrical battery National Institute of Mental Health, an agency of the United States government National Institute of Medical Herbalists, a professional organisation in the United Kingdom Rats of NIMH, a series of children's books The Secret of NIMH, a 1982 American animated fantasy adventure drama film The Secret of NIMH
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Praseodymium
Praseodymium
Praseodymium
is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59. It is the third member of the lanthanide series and is traditionally considered to be one of the rare-earth metals. Praseodymium
Praseodymium
is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal, valued for its magnetic, electrical, chemical, and optical properties. It is too reactive to be found in native form, and pure praseodymium metal slowly develops a green oxide coating when exposed to air. Praseodymium
Praseodymium
always occurs naturally together with the other rare-earth metals. It is the fourth most common rare-earth element, making up 9.1 parts per million of the Earth's crust, an abundance similar to that of boron. In 1841, Swedish chemist Carl Gustav Mosander extracted a rare-earth oxide residue he called didymium from a residue he called "lanthana", in turn separated from cerium salts
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Electrolyte
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water. The dissolved electrolyte separates into cations and anions, which disperse uniformly through the solvent. Electrically, such a solution is neutral. If an electric potential is applied to such a solution, the cations of the solution are drawn to the electrode that has an abundance of electrons, while the anions are drawn to the electrode that has a deficit of electrons. The movement of anions and cations in opposite directions within the solution amounts to a current. This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases. Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride, under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as electrolytes
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Mischmetal
Mischmetal
Mischmetal
(from German: Mischmetall – "mixed metal") is an alloy of rare-earth elements. It is also called cerium mischmetal, or rare-earth mischmetal. A typical composition includes approximately 50% cerium, 25% lanthanum, and 15-18% neodymium with other rare earth metals following. Its most common use is in the ferrocerium "flint" ignition device of many lighters and torches, although an alloy of only rare-earth elements would be too soft to give good sparks. For this purpose, it is blended with iron oxide and magnesium oxide to form a harder material known as ferrocerium. In chemical formulae it is commonly abbreviated as Mm, e.g
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Energy Conversion Devices
Energy Conversion Devices
Energy Conversion Devices
(ECD) was an American photovoltaics manufacturer of thin-film solar cells made of amorphous silicon used in flexible laminates and in building-integrated photovoltaics. The company was also a manufacturer of rechargeable batteries and other renewable energy related products. ECD was headquartered in Rochester Hills, Michigan. Through its wholly owned Auburn Hills, Michigan
Auburn Hills, Michigan
subsidiary United Solar Ovonic, LLC, better known as Uni-Solar, ECD was at one time the world's largest producer of flexible solar panels. Uni-Solar panels consisted of long rectangular strips with wiring at one end, which could be glued to any suitable supporting surface. They were widely used on flat roofs, motorhomes, semi-trailer cabs and similar roles. On February 14, 2012, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. and its subsidiaries, United Solar Ovonic LLC and Solar Integrated Technologies, Inc
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Battery Directive
The Directive 2006/66/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 September 2006 on batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators and repealing Directive 91/157/EEC, commonly known as the Battery Directive, regulates the manufacture and disposal of batteries in the European Union
European Union
with the aim of "improving the environmental performance of batteries and accumulators".[1]:4[2] Batteries commonly contain hazardous elements such as mercury, cadmium, and lead, which when incinerated or landfilled, present a risk to the environment and human health. Directive
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BASF
Coordinates: 49°29′47″N 8°25′57″E / 49.49639°N 8.43250°E / 49.49639; 8.43250 BASF
BASF
SETypeSocietas EuropaeaTraded as FWB: BAS DAX
DAX
ComponentIndustry ChemicalsFounded 6 April 1865; 152 years ago
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Intermetallic
An intermetallic (also called an intermetallic compound, intermetallic alloy, ordered intermetallic alloy, and a long-range-ordered alloy) is a solid-state compound exhibiting metallic bonding, defined stoichiometry and ordered crystal structure
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Rare-earth Element
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.[2] Scandium
Scandium
and yttrium are considered rare-earth elements because they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and exhibit similar chemical properties. Rare-earth elements are cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), lanthanum (La), lute
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Cerium
Cerium
Cerium
is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58. Cerium
Cerium
is a soft, ductile and silvery-white metal that tarnishes when exposed to air, and it is soft enough to be cut with a knife. Cerium is the second element in the lanthanide series, and while it often shows the +3 oxidation state characteristic of the series, it also exceptionally has a stable +4 state that does not oxidize water. It is also traditionally considered one of the rare-earth elements. Cerium has no biological role and is not very toxic. Despite always being found in combination with the other rare-earth elements in minerals such as those of the monazite and bastnäsite groups, cerium is easy to extract from its ores, as it can be distinguished among the lanthanides by its unique ability to be oxidized to the +4 state. It is the most common of the lanthanides, followed by neodymium, lanthanum, and praseodymium
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Neodymium
Neodymium
Neodymium
is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60. It is a soft silvery metal that tarnishes in air. Neodymium
Neodymium
was discovered in 1885 by the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. It is present in significant quantities in the ore minerals monazite and bastnäsite. Neodymium
Neodymium
is not found naturally in metallic form or unmixed with other lanthanides, and it is usually refined for general use. Although neodymium is classed as a rare earth, it is a fairly common element, no rarer than cobalt, nickel, or copper, and is widely distributed in the Earth's crust.[4] Most of the world's commercial neodymium is mined in China. Neodymium
Neodymium
compounds were first commercially used as glass dyes in 1927, and they remain a popular additive in glasses
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Cobalt
Cobalt
Cobalt
is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth's crust only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal. Cobalt-based blue pigments (cobalt blue) have been used since ancient times for jewelry and paints, and to impart a distinctive blue tint to glass, but the color was later thought by alchemists to be due to the known metal bismuth. Miners had long used the name kobold ore (German for goblin ore) for some of the blue-pigment producing minerals; they were so named because they were poor in known metals, and gave poisonous arsenic-containing fumes when smelted
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Nickel–hydrogen Battery
A nickel–hydrogen battery (NiH2 or Ni–H2) is a rechargeable electrochemical power source based on nickel and hydrogen.[5] It differs from a nickel–metal hydride (NIMH) battery by the use of hydrogen in gaseous form, stored in a pressurized cell at up to 1200 psi (82.7 bar) pressure.[6] The Nickel–hydrogen battery was patented on Feb 25, 1971 by Alexandr Ilich Kloss and Boris Ioselevich Tsenter in the United States.[7] NiH2 cells using 26% potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an electrolyte have shown a service life of 15 years or more at 80% depth of discharge (DOD)[8] The energy density is 75 Wh/kg, 60 Wh/dm3[2] specific power 220 W/kg.[3] The open-circuit voltage is 1.55 V, the average voltage during discharge is 1.25 V.[9] While the energy density is only around one third as that of a lithium battery, the distinctive virtue of the nickel–hydrogen battery is its long life: the cells handle more than 20,000 charge cycles[4] with 85% energy efficiency and 100% faradaic effi
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Manganese
Manganese
Manganese
is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in minerals in combination with iron. Manganese
Manganese
is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Historically, manganese is named for pyrolusite and other black minerals from the region of Magnesia in Greece, which also gave its name to magnesium and the iron ore magnetite. By the mid-18th century, Swedish-German chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide) contained a new element, but they were unable to isolate it
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Aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium
or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[5] Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation
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