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Nièvre
Nièvre
Nièvre
(IPA: [njɛvʁ]) is a department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
in the centre of France
France
named after the River Nièvre.[1]Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Demography 4 Wines 5 Politics 6 Tourism 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit] Nièvre
Nièvre
is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution
French Revolution
on 4 March 1790. It was created from the former province of Nivernais. Geography[edit] Nièvre
Nièvre
is part of the current region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté,[1] although historically it was not part of the province of Burgundy. It is surrounded by the departments of Yonne, Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Allier, Cher, and Loiret
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French Revolution
The French Revolution
Revolution
(French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France
France
and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799. It was partially carried forward by Napoleon
Napoleon
during the later expansion of the French Empire. The Revolution
Revolution
overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon
Napoleon
who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond
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Duchy Of Burgundy
The Duchy of Burgundy
Burgundy
(Latin: Ducatus Burgundiae; French: Duché de Bourgogne, Dutch: Hertogdom Bourgondië) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire. Upon the 9th century partitions, the French remnants of the Burgundian kingdom were demoted to a ducal rank by King Robert II of France
France
in 1004 and in 1032 awarded to his younger son Robert via Salic law – other portions had passed to the Imperial Kingdom of Arles and the County of Burgundy
County of Burgundy
(Franche-Comté). Robert became the ancestor of the ducal House of Burgundy, a cadet branch of the royal Capetian dynasty, ruling over a territory which roughly conformed to the borders and territories of the modern region of Burgundy
Burgundy
(Bourgogne)
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Central European Summer Time
Central European Summer Time
European Summer Time
(CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time
Central European Time
(UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year
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Daylight Saving Time
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
(DST), also daylight savings time or daylight time (United States) and summer time (United Kingdom, European Union, and others), is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn.[1] In effect, DST causes a lost hour of sleep in the spring and an extra hour of sleep in the fall.[2][3] George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895.[4] The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the 1970s energy crisis
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Central European Time
Central European Time
Central European Time
(CET), used in most parts of Europe
Europe
and a few North African
North African
countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC). The time offset from UTC
UTC
can be written as UTC+01:00
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Time Zone
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. Time
Time
zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC) by a whole number of hours (UTC−12:00 to UTC+14:00), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (e.g. Newfoundland
Newfoundland
Standard Time
Time
is UTC−03:30, Nepal
Nepal
Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour
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Provinces Of France
The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department (French: département) system superseded provinces. The provinces of France were roughly equivalent to the historic counties of England. They came into their final form over the course of many hundreds of years, as many dozens of semi-independent fiefs and former independent countries came to be incorporated into the French royal domain. Because of the haphazard manner in which the provinces evolved, each had its own sets of feudal traditions, laws, taxation systems, courts, etc., and the system represented an impediment to effective administration of the entire country from Paris
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Estuary
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.[1] Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments. They are subject both to marine influences—such as tides, waves, and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The mixing of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world.[2] Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene
Holocene
epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea level began to rise about 10,000–12,000 years ago.[3] Estuaries are typically classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns
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White Wine
White wine
White wine
is a wine whose colour can be straw-yellow, yellow-green, or yellow-gold.[1] It is produced by the alcoholic fermentation of the non-coloured pulp of grapes, which may have a skin of any colour. White wine
White wine
has existed for at least 2500 years. The wide variety of white wines comes from the large number of varieties, methods of winemaking, and ratios of residual sugar. White wine is mainly from "white" grapes, which are green or yellow in colour, such as the Chardonnay, Sauvignon, and Riesling. Some white wine is also made from grapes with coloured skin, provided that the obtained wort is not stained. Pinot noir, for example, is commonly used to produce champagne. Among the many types of white wine, dry white wine is the most common. More or less aromatic and tangy, it is derived from the complete fermentation of the wort
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Subprefectures In France
In France, a subprefecture (French: sous-préfecture) is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department. The term also applies to the building that houses the administrative headquarters for an arrondissement. The civil servant in charge of a subprefecture is the subprefect, assisted by a general secretary
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Sauvignon Blanc
Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon blanc
is a green-skinned grape variety that originates from the Bordeaux
Bordeaux
region of France. The grape most likely gets its name from the French words sauvage ("wild") and blanc ("white") due to its early origins as an indigenous grape in South West France.[1] It is possibly a descendant of Savagnin. Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon blanc
is planted in many of the world's wine regions, producing a crisp, dry, and refreshing white varietal wine. The grape is also a component of the famous dessert wines from Sauternes and Barsac. Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon blanc
is widely cultivated in France, Chile, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the states of Washington and California
California
in the US
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Ségolène Royal
Marie-Ségolène Royal, known as Ségolène Royal (pronounced [se.ɡɔ.lɛn ʁwa.jal] ( listen); born 22 September 1953), is a French politician and prominent member of the Socialist Party. She was President of the Poitou-Charentes
Poitou-Charentes
Regional Council from 2004 to 2014. She was the Socialist candidate in the 2007 presidential election, becoming the first woman in France to be nominated as a presidential candidate by a major party. She lost to Nicolas Sarkozy in the run-off. In 2008, Royal narrowly lost to Martine Aubry
Martine Aubry
in the Socialist Party's election for First Secretary at the Party's twenty-second national congress. Candidate for the PS nomination for President in 2012, she lost the Socialist Party presidential primary in 2011
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Regions Of France
(including overseas)Departments (including overseas)ArrondissementsCantonsIntercommunality Métropole Communauté urbaine Communauté d'agglomération Communauté de communesCommunes Associated communes Municipal arrondissementsOthers in Overseas France Overseas collectivities Sui generis
Sui generis
collectivity Overseas country Overseas territory Clipperton Island France
France
is divided into 18 administrative regions (French: région, [ʁeʒjɔ̃]), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.[1] The 13 metropolitan regions (including 12 mainland regions and Corsica) are each further subdivided into 2 to 13 departments, while the overseas regions consist of only one department each and hence are also referred to as "overseas departments"
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