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New York Philharmonic
The NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC, officially the PHILHARMONIC-SYMPHONY SOCIETY OF NEW YORK, INC., globally known as NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA (NYPO) or NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC-SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, is a symphony orchestra based in New York City
New York City
in the United States. It is one of the leading American orchestras popularly referred to as the "Big Five ". The Philharmonic's home is David Geffen Hall , located in New York's Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
. Founded in 1842, the orchestra is one of the oldest musical institutions in the United States and the oldest of the "Big Five" orchestras. Its record-setting 14,000th concert was given in December 2004
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Andrew Carnegie
ANDREW CARNEGIE (/kɑːrˈneɪɡi/ kar-NAY-gee , but commonly /ˈkɑːrnᵻɡi/ KAR-nə-gee or /kɑːrˈnɛɡi/ kar-NEG-ee ; November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American industrialist . Carnegie led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century and is often identified as one of the richest people and Americans ever . He built a leadership role as a philanthropist for the United States and the British Empire
British Empire
. During the last 18 years of his life, he gave away to charities, foundations, and universities about $350 million (in 2015 share of GDP, $78.6 billion)—almost 90 percent of his fortune. His 1889 article proclaiming "The Gospel of Wealth " called on the rich to use their wealth to improve society, and it stimulated a wave of philanthropy. Carnegie was born in Dunfermline , Scotland, and emigrated in 1848 to the United States with his parents
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Cincinnati
CINCINNATI (/ˌsɪnsᵻˈnæti/ SIN-si-NAT-ee ) is a city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Ohio
Ohio
that serves as county seat of Hamilton County . Settled in 1788, the city is located on the north side of the confluence of the Licking with the Ohio
Ohio
River . With a population of 298,800, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is the third-largest city in Ohio
Ohio
and the 65th-largest city in the United States. Its metropolitan statistical area is the 28th-largest in the United States
United States
and the largest centered in Ohio. The city is also part of the larger Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area , which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census. In the 19th century, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
was an American boomtown in the heart of the country; it rivaled the larger coastal cities in size and wealth
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Weimar
WEIMAR (German pronunciation: ; Latin : Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia
Thuringia
, Germany
Germany
. It is located between Erfurt
Erfurt
in the west and Jena
Jena
in the east, approximately 80 kilometres (50 miles) southwest of Leipzig
Leipzig
, 170 kilometres (106 miles) north of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and 170 kilometres (106 miles) west of Dresden
Dresden
. Together with the neighbour-cities Erfurt
Erfurt
and Jena
Jena
it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia
Thuringia
with approximately 500,000 inhabitants, whereas the city itself counts a population of 65,000. Weimar
Weimar
is well known because of its large cultural heritage and its importance in German history
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Franz Liszt
FRANZ LISZT (German pronunciation: ; Hungarian : Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc, pronounced ; 22 October 1811 – 31 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer , virtuoso pianist , conductor , music teacher , arranger , organist , philanthropist , author , nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary . Liszt gained renown in Europe during the early nineteenth century for his prodigious virtuosic skill as a pianist. He was a friend, musical promoter and benefactor to many composers of his time, including Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
, Richard Wagner , Hector Berlioz
Hector Berlioz
, Robert Schumann , Camille Saint-Saëns
Camille Saint-Saëns
, Edvard Grieg , Ole Bull
Ole Bull
, Joachim Raff , Mikhail Glinka , and Alexander Borodin
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Ode To Joy
"ODE TO JOY" (German: "An die Freude" , first line: "Freude, schöner Götterfunken") is an ode written in the summer of 1785 by German poet, playwright, and historian Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich Schiller
and published the following year in Thalia . A slightly revised version appeared in 1808, changing two lines of the first and omitting the last stanza. " Ode to Joy" is best known for its use by Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
in the final (fourth) movement of his Ninth Symphony , completed in 1824. Beethoven\'s text does not use the entirety of Schiller's poem, and reorders some sections. His tune (but not Schiller's words) was adopted as the Anthem of Europe
Anthem of Europe
by the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
in 1972, and subsequently the European Union
European Union

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Joseph Horowitz
JOSEPH HOROWITZ (born 1948 in New York City
New York City
) is an American cultural historian whose seven books mainly deal with the institutional history of classical music in the United States
United States
. As a producer of concerts, he has played a pioneering role in promoting thematic programming and new concert formats. His tenure as Artistic Advisor and, subsequently, Executive Director of the Brooklyn Philharmonic Orchestra at the Brooklyn Academy of Music
Brooklyn Academy of Music
(1992–1997) attracted national attention for its radical departure from traditional functions and templates
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Édouard Colonne
ÉDOUARD JUDA COLONNE (23 July 1838 in Bordeaux
Bordeaux
– 28 March 1910 in Paris
Paris
) was a French conductor and violinist , who was a champion of the music of Berlioz and other eminent 19th-century composers. LIFE AND CAREERColonne was the son and grandson of musicians of Italian-Jewish descent. From the age of eight, he played flageolet and accordion, and then began violin studies with Baudoin. Starting in 1855, Colonne studied at the Conservatoire in Paris, where he won first prizes in both harmony and violin. For almost a decade (1858–67) he was first violinist at the Opéra in Paris, as well as playing second violin in the Lamoureux Quartet. In 1871 he directed concerts at the Grand-Hôtel and Massenet 's music for the staging of Les Érinnyes in 1873
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New England
NEW ENGLAND is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States
United States
: Maine
Maine
, Vermont
Vermont
, New Hampshire , Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
, and Connecticut
Connecticut
. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec
Quebec
to the northeast and north, respectively. The Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
is to the south. Boston
Boston
is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts
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National Symphony Orchestra
The NATIONAL SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (NSO), founded in 1931, is an American symphony orchestra based in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
. Its principal performing venue is the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Activities * 3 Music directors * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYFor the first period of its history, the NSO performed in Constitution Hall
Constitution Hall
. During the tenure of the first music director, Hans Kindler , the musicians received a salary of $40.00 per week, for three rehearsals and one concert, for five months of the year. The first female member of the NSO was a harpist, Sylvia Meyer , who joined in 1933
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Felix Weingartner
PAUL FELIX WEINGARTNER, Edler VON MüNZBERG (2 June 1863 – 7 May 1942) was an Austrian conductor , composer and pianist . CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 Composer
Composer
and editor * 3 Writings and interests * 4 Compositions * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links LIFE AND CAREERWeingartner was born in Zara , Dalmatia , Austria–Hungary (now Zadar
Zadar
, Croatia
Croatia
), to Austrian parents. The family moved to Graz
Graz
in 1868, and his father died later that year. He studied with Wilhelm Mayer (who published his own compositions under the pseudonym of W. A. Rémy and also taught Ferruccio Busoni
Ferruccio Busoni
)
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Richard Strauss
RICHARD GEORG STRAUSS (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas , which include Der Rosenkavalier
Der Rosenkavalier
, Elektra , Die Frau ohne Schatten
Die Frau ohne Schatten
and Salome ; his Lieder , especially his Four Last Songs ; his tone poems , including Don Juan , Death and Transfiguration , Till Eulenspiegel\'s Merry Pranks , Also sprach Zarathustra , Ein Heldenleben , Symphonia Domestica , and An Alpine Symphony ; and other instrumental works such as Metamorphosen and his Oboe Concerto . Strauss
Strauss
was also a prominent conductor in Western Europe and the Americas, enjoying quasi-celebrity status as his compositions became standards of orchestral and operatic repertoire
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Fritz Steinbach
FRITZ STEINBACH (17 June 1855 - 13 Aug 1916) was a German conductor and composer who was particularly associated with the works of Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms
. Born in Grünsfeld , he was the brother of conductor Emil Steinbach . He studied at the Leipzig Conservatory and in Vienna. Among his teachers were Martin Gustav Nottebohm and Anton Door . In 1886, he succeeded Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
as the conductor of the Meiningen Court Orchestra . He remained there until 1902, during which time he often collaborated with Brahms and gave frequent guest performances at the court of Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen . From 1898-1901 he was President of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein
Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein
. He was the music director of the Gürzenich Orchestra in Cologne from 1902-1914
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Abraham Lincoln
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES * Presidency -------------------------FIRST TERM * 1860 campaign * Election * 1st inauguration * Address * AMERICAN CIVIL WAR * The Union * Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation
* Ten percent plan *
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Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
PYOTR ILYICH TCHAIKOVSKY (/ˈɪljɪtʃ tʃaɪˈkɒfski/ IL-yitch chy-KOF-skee ; Russian : Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский; 25 April/7 May 1840 – 25 October/6 November 1893), often anglicized as PETER ILICH TCHAIKOVSKY, was a Russian composer of the romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular music in the classical repertoire. He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, bolstered by his appearances as a guest conductor in Europe and the United States. Tchaikovsky was honored in 1884, by Emperor Alexander III , and awarded a lifetime pension. Although musically precocious, Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as a civil servant . There was scant opportunity for a musical career in Russia at that time and no system of public music education
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Ludwig Van Beethoven
LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (/ˈlʊdvɪɡ væn ˈbeɪˌtoʊvən/ ( listen ), /ˈbeɪtˌhoʊvən/ ; German: ( listen ); baptised 17 December 1770 – 26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist . A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music , he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His best-known compositions include 9 symphonies , 5 piano concertos , 1 violin concerto , 32 piano sonatas , 16 string quartets , his great Mass the Missa solemnis , and one opera , Fidelio . Born in Bonn
Bonn
, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, Beethoven displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and by composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe
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