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New World
The NEW WORLD is one of the names used for the majority of Earth
Earth
's Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
, specifically the Americas
Americas
(including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean
Caribbean
and Bermuda
Bermuda
). The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would later be called the Americas
Americas
in the age of discovery , expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers , who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa
Africa
, Europe
Europe
, and Asia
Asia
, collectively now referred to as the Old World (a.k.a. Afro-Eurasia
Afro-Eurasia
). The term was coined by Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci

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Barley
BARLEY ( Hordeum
Hordeum
vulgare L.), a member of the grass family , is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia
Eurasia
as early as 10,000 years ago. Barley
Barley
has been used as animal fodder , as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages , and as a component of various health foods . It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley
Barley
grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation. In 2014, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced (144 million tonnes ) behind corn, rice and wheat
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Lentil
The LENTIL (Lens culinaris) is an edible pulse . It is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, known for its lens -shaped seeds . It is about 40 cm (16 in) tall, and the seeds grow in pods , usually with two seeds in each. In South Asian cuisine , split lentils (often with their hulls removed) are known as lentils. Usually eaten with rice or rotis , the lentil is a dietary staple throughout regions of India
India
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Nepal
Nepal
. As a food crop, the majority of world production comes from Canada
Canada
, India
India
and Australia
Australia

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Oats
The OAT ( Avena
Avena
sativa), sometimes called the COMMON OAT, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals ). While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats , one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Oats are a nutrient -rich food associated with lower blood cholesterol when consumed regularly. Avenins present in oats (proteins similar to gliadin from wheat ) can trigger celiac disease in a small proportion of people. Also, oat products are frequently contaminated by other gluten-containing grains , mainly wheat and barley
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Biological Classification
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Nearctic Ecozone
The NEARCTIC is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface. The Nearctic
Nearctic
realm The Nearctic
Nearctic
realm covers most of North America
North America
, including Greenland , Central Florida
Central Florida
, and the highlands of Mexico
Mexico
. The parts of North America that are not in the Nearctic
Nearctic
realm are Eastern Mexico, Southern Florida , Central America
Central America
, and the Caribbean
Caribbean
islands which are part of the Neotropical realm , together with South America
South America

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Clipperton Island
CLIPPERTON ISLAND (French : Île de Clipperton or Île de la Passion; Spanish : Isla de la Pasión) is an uninhabited 6 km2 (2.3 sq mi) coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
off the coast of Central America . It is a minor overseas territory of France
France

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Biology
BIOLOGY is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms , including their physical and chemical structure , function , development and evolution . Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches . Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity , and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species . It is also understood that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment
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Afrotropic Ecozone
The AFROTROPICAL REALM is one of the Earth's eight biogeographic realms . It includes Africa
Africa
south of the Sahara Desert
Sahara Desert
, the southern and eastern fringes of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
, the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
, southern Iran
Iran
and extreme southwestern Pakistan
Pakistan
, and the islands of the western Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
. It was formerly known as the ETHIOPIAN ZONE or ETHIOPIAN REGION
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Pea
The PEA is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit PISUM SATIVUM. Each pod contains several peas. Pea
Pea
pods are botanically fruit , since they contain seeds and developed from the ovary of a (pea) flower. The name is also used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae
Fabaceae
such as the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and the seeds from several species of Lathyrus . P. sativum is an annual plant , with a life cycle of one year. It is a cool-season crop grown in many parts of the world; planting can take place from winter to early summer depending on location. The average pea weighs between 0.1 and 0.36 grams
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Rye
Secale fragile M.Bieb. RYE ( Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain , a cover crop and a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe ( Triticeae ) and is closely related to barley (genus Hordeum) and wheat (Triticum). Rye
Rye
grain is used for flour , rye bread , rye beer , crisp bread , some whiskeys , some vodkas , and animal fodder . It can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats . Rye
Rye
is a cereal grain and should not be confused with ryegrass , which is used for lawns, pasture, and hay for livestock
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Sheep
The SHEEP ( Ovis
Ovis
aries) is a quadrupedal , ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock . Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates . Although the name "sheep" applies to many species in the genus Ovis
Ovis
, in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis
Ovis
aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are also the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe (/juː/ ), an intact male as a ram or occasionally a tup, a castrated male as a wether, and a younger sheep as a lamb. Sheep
Sheep
are most likely descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleece , meat (lamb, hogget or mutton) and milk . A sheep's wool is the most widely used animal fiber, and is usually harvested by shearing
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Crops
A CROP is "a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence." Crop
Crop
may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state (husked , shelled, etc.). Most crops are cultivated in agriculture or aquaculture . A CROP is usually expanded to include macroscopic fungus (e.g. mushrooms ), or alga (algaculture ). Most crops are harvested as food for humans or livestock (fodder crops). Some crops are gathered from the wild (including intensive gathering , e.g. ginseng ). Important non-food crops include horticulture, floriculture and industrial crops. Horticulture
Horticulture
crops include plants used for other crops (e.g. fruit trees ). Floriculture
Floriculture
crops include bedding plants, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens, and cut flowers
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Common Bean
PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, the COMMON BEAN (also known as the STRING BEAN, FIELD BEAN, FLAGEOLET BEAN, FRENCH BEAN, GARDEN BEAN, GREEN BEAN, HARICOT BEAN, POP BEAN, SNAP BEAN, or SNAP), is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seed (known as just "beans ") or unripe fruit (green beans ). The main categories of common beans, on the basis of uses, are dry beans (seeds harvested at complete maturity), snap beans (tender pods with reduced fibre harvested before the seed development phase) and shell beans (seeds harvested at physiological maturity). Its leaf is also occasionally used as a vegetable and the straw as fodder . Its botanical classification , along with other Phaseolus
Phaseolus
species, is as a member of the legume family Fabaceae
Fabaceae
, most of whose members acquire the nitrogen they require through an association with rhizobia , a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria
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Pig
A PIG is any of the animals in the genus SUS, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae
Suidae
. Pigs include the domestic pig and its ancestor, the common Eurasian wild boar ( Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa
), along with other species; related creatures outside the genus include the peccary , the babirusa , and the warthog . Pigs, like all suids , are native to the Eurasian and African continents . Juvenile pigs are known as piglets. Pigs are highly social and intelligent animals. With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domesticated pig is one of the most numerous large mammals on the planet. Pigs are omnivores and can consume a wide range of food, similar to humans. Pigs can harbour a range of parasites and diseases that can be transmitted to humans. Because of the similarities between pigs and humans, pigs are used for human medical research
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Goat
Capra hircus The DOMESTIC GOAT (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. The GOAT is a member of the family Bovidae
Bovidae
and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae
Caprinae
. There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat. Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species, and have been used for their milk , meat , hair, and skins over much of the world. In 2011, there were more than 924 million live goats around the globe, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization . Female goats are referred to as "does" or "nannies;" intact males are called "bucks" or "billies;" and juveniles of both sexes are called "kids". Castrated males are called "wethers"
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