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Neurotoxin
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).[3] Neurotoxins are an extensive class of exogenous chemical neurological insults[4] that can adversely affect function in both developing and mature nervous tissue.[5] The term can also be used to classify endogenous compounds, which, when abnormally contacted, can prove neurologically toxic.[4] Though neurotoxins are often neurologically destructive, their ability to specifically target neural components is important in the study of nervous systems.[6] Common examples of neurotoxins include lead,[7] ethanol (drinking alcohol), manganese[8] glutamate,[9] nitric oxide,[10] botulinum toxin (e.g
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Neurotoxicology (journal)
Neuro Toxicology
Toxicology
is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the toxicology of the nervous system. It was established in 1979 and originally published by Intox Press, until it was acquired by Elsevier
Elsevier
in 2001. The editor-in-chief is Joan Marie Cranmer (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences). Abstracting and indexing[edit] The journal is abstracted and indexed in:Archives of Environmental Health BIOSIS Previews Chemical Abstracts Current Contents/Life Sciences EMBASE EMBiology Excerpta Medica Japanese Citation Index MEDLINE/PubMed Science Citation Index ScopusAccording to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2014 impact factor of 3.379, ranking it 20th out of 87 journals in the category "Toxicology".[1] References[edit]^ "Journals Ranked by Impact: Toxicology". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science
Web of Science
(Science ed.). Thomson Reuters
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western)
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Intellectual Disability
Intellectual disability
Intellectual disability
(ID), also known as general learning disability,[3] and mental retardation (MR),[4][5] is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. It is defined by an IQ under 70 in addition to deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors that affect everyday, general living. Once focused almost entirely on cognition, the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating to individuals' functional skills in their environments
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Memory
Memory
Memory
is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Memory
Memory
is vital to experiences and related to limbic systems, it is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action.[1] If we could not remember past events, we could not learn or develop language, relationships, nor personal identity (Eysenck, 2012). Often memory is understood as an informational processing system with explicit and implicit functioning that is made up of a sensory processor, short-term (or working) memory, and long-term memory (Baddely, 2007).[better source needed] This can be related to the neuron
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Epilepsy
Epilepsy
Epilepsy
is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.[10][11] Epileptic seizures
Epileptic seizures
are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable periods to long periods of vigorous shaking.[1] These episodes can result in physica
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Dementia
Dementia
Dementia
is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.[2] Other common symptoms include emotional problems, problems with language, and a decrease in motivation.[2][3] A person's consciousness is usually not affected.[2] A dementia diagnosis requires a change from a person's usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging.[2][11] These diseases also have a significant effect on a person's
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Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS). The PNS consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord.[1] The main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a relay between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body.[2] Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the vertebral column and skull, or by the blood–brain barrier, which leaves it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. In the somatic nervous system, the cranial nerves are part of the PNS with the exception of the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), along with the retina. The second cranial nerve is not a true peripheral nerve but a tract of the diencephalon.[3] Cranial nerve
Cranial nerve
ganglia originated in the CNS
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Neuropathy
Peripheral neuropathy
Peripheral neuropathy
(PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected. Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy), hyperglycemia-induced glycation,[1][2][3] vitamin deficiency, medication (e.g., chemotherapy, or commonly prescribed antibiotics including metronidazole and the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin, Levaquin, Avelox etc.), traumatic injury, including ischemia, radiation therapy, excessive alcohol consumption, immune system disease, Coeliac disease, or viral infection
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Myopathy
Myopathy is a disease of the muscle[1] in which the muscle fibers do not function properly. This results in muscular weakness. "Myopathy" simply means muscle disease (Greek myo- "muscle" + patheia < -pathy "suffering"). This meaning implies that the primary defect is within the muscle, as opposed to the nerves ("neuropathies" or "neurogenic" disorders) or elsewhere (e.g., the brain). Muscle
Muscle
cramps, stiffness, and spasm can also be associated with myopathy. Muscular disease can be classified as neuromuscular or musculoskeletal in nature
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Antioxidant
An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation
Oxidation
is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, leading to chain reactions that may damage cells. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid (vitamin C) terminate these chain reactions. The term "antioxidant" is mainly used for two different groups of substances: industrial chemicals which are added to products to prevent oxidation, and natural chemicals found in foods and body tissue which are said to have beneficial health effects. To balance the oxidative state, plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes (e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase) produced internally or the dietary antioxidants: vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Antioxidant
Antioxidant
dietary supplements do not improve health nor are they effective in preventing diseases
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Antitoxin
An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants, and bacteria. Although they are most effective in neutralizing toxins, they can kill bacteria and other microorganisms. Antitoxins are made within organisms, but can be injected into other organisms, including humans. This procedure involves injecting an animal with a safe amount of a particular toxin. Then, the animal’s body makes the antitoxin needed to neutralize the toxin. Later, the blood is withdrawn from the animal. When the antitoxin is obtained from the blood, it is purified and injected into a human or other animal, inducing passive immunity. To prevent serum sickness, it is often best to use antitoxin generated from the same species (e.g
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Plumbing
Plumbing
Plumbing
is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications
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Glial Cell
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems.[1] In the central nervous system, glial cells include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells and microglia, and in the peripheral nervous system glial cells include Schwann cells and satellite cells. The term derives from Greek γλία and γλοία "glue"; pronounced in English as either /ˈɡliːə/ or /ˈɡlaɪə/ As the Greek name implies, glia are commonly known as the glue of the nervous system; however, this is not fully accurate
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Human
Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens Homo
Homo
sapiens population densitySynonyms Species
Species
synonymy[1]aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 americanus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 arabicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 aurignacensis Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 australasicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cafer Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 capensis Broom, 1917 columbicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911) grimaldiensis Gregory, 1921 grimaldii Lapouge, 1906 hottentotus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 hyperboreus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 indicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 japeticus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 melaninus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 monstrosus Linnaeus, 1758 neptunianus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932 patagonus Bory de St
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Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 15–33 billion neurons,[1] each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. Physiologically, the function of the brain is to exert centralized control over the other organs of the body. The brain acts on the rest of the body both by generating patterns of muscle activity and by driving the secretion of chemicals called hormones. This centralized control allows rapid and coordinated responses to changes in the environment
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