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Neuroscientist
A neuroscientist (or neurobiologist) is a scientist who has specialised knowledge in the field of neuroscience, the branch of biology[1] that deals with the physiology, biochemistry, anatomy and molecular biology of neurons and neural circuits and especially their association with behaviour and learning.[2] Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi
(1843-1926), Italian physician, neuroscientist, and namesake of the Golgi apparatusNeuroscientists generally work as researchers within a college, university, government agency, or private industry setting.[3] In research-oriented careers, neuroscientists typically spend their time designing and carrying out scientific experiments that contribute to the understanding of the nervous system and its function. They can engage in basic or applied research
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Cranial Nerves
Cranial nerves
Cranial nerves
are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).[1] 10 of 12 of the cranial nerves originate in the brainstem. Cranial nerves
Cranial nerves
relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and neck.[2] Spinal nerves emerge sequentially from the spinal cord with the spinal nerve closest to the head (C1) emerging in the space above the first cervical vertebra. The cranial nerves, however, emerge from the central nervous system above this level.[3] Each cranial nerve is paired and is present on both sides
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Molecular Neuroscience
Molecular neuroscience
Molecular neuroscience
is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology applied to the nervous systems of animals
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Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease
(AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.[1][2] It is the cause of 60% to 70% of cases of dementia.[1][2] The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss).[1] As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, loss of motivation, not managing self care, and behavioural issues.[1][2] As a
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Lou Gehrig's Disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
(ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.[3][5][11] Some also use the term motor neuron disease for a group of conditions of which ALS is the most common.[2] ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles decreasing in size.[2] This results in difficulty speaking, swallowing, and eventually breathing.[2][3] The cause is not known in 90% to 9
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Biological
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological,[1] or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources. Different from totally synthesized pharmaceuticals, they include vaccines, blood, blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, gene therapies, tissues, recombinant therapeutic protein, and living cells used in cell therapy. Biologics can be composed of sugars, proteins, or nucleic acids or complex combinations of these substances, or may be living cells or tissues. They (or their precursors or components) are isolated from living sources—human, animal, plant, fungal, or microbial. Terminology surrounding biopharmaceuticals varies between groups and entities, with different terms referring to different subsets of therapeutics within the general biopharmaceutical category
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Psychological
Psychology
Psychology
is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest. As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.[1][2] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, electric field gradients, and radio waves to generate images of the organs in the body. MRI does not involve X-rays and the use of ionizing radiation, which distinguishes it from CT or CAT scans. Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
is a medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR can also be used for imaging in other NMR applications such as NMR spectroscopy. While the hazards of X-rays
X-rays
are now well-controlled in most medical contexts, MRI may still be seen as a better choice than CT. MRI is widely used in hospitals and clinics for medical diagnosis, staging of disease and follow-up without exposing the body to radiation
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Computed Tomography Angiography
Computed tomography
Computed tomography
angiography (also called CT angiography or CTA) is a computed tomography technique used to visualize arterial and venous vessels throughout the body. This ranges from arteries serving the brain to those bringing blood to the lungs, kidneys, arms and legs.Contents1 Medical uses1.1 Coronary CT angiography 1.2 Other uses2 Technique 3 Risks 4 History 5 See also 6 ReferencesMedical uses[edit] CTA can be used to examine blood vessels in many key areas of the body, including the brain, kidneys, pelvis, and the lungs. Coronary CT angiography[edit] Main article: Coronary CT angiographyImage of contrast enhanced dual-source coronary CT-angiograph. Coronary CT angiography
Coronary CT angiography
(CTA) is the use of CT angiography to assess the coronary arteries of the heart
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Diffusion MRI
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI or DW-MRI) is the use of specific MRI sequences as well as software that generates images from the resulting data, that uses the diffusion of water molecules to generate contrast in MR images.[1][2][3] It allows the mapping of the diffusion process of molecules, mainly water, in biological tissues, in vivo and non-invasively. Molecular diffusion
Molecular diffusion
in tissues is not free, but reflects interactions with many obstacles, such as macromolecules, fibers, and membranes. Water molecule diffusion patterns can therefore reveal microscopic details about tissue architecture, either normal or in a diseased state
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Behavioral Neuroscience
Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology,[1] biopsychology, or psychobiology[2] is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.[3]Contents1 History 2 Relationship to other fields of psychology and biology 3 Research methods3.1 Disabling or decreasing neural function 3.2 Enhancing neural function 3.3 Measuring neural activity 3.4 Genetic techniques4 Other research methods4.1 Limitations and advantages5 Topic areas 6 Awards 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit] Behavioral neuroscience
Behavioral neuroscience
as a scientific discipline emerged from a variety of scientific and philosophical traditions in the 18th and 19th centuries. In philosophy, people like René Descartes
René Descartes
proposed physical models to explain animal and human behavior
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Cellular Neuroscience
Cellular neuroscience
Cellular neuroscience
is the study of neurons at a cellular level. This includes morphology and physiological properties of single neurons
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Computational Neuroscience
Computational neuroscience
Computational neuroscience
(also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development, structure, information-processing, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.[1][2][3][4]
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Nerve
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts.[1][2] Neurons are sometimes called nerve cells, though this term is potentially misleading since many neurons do not form nerves, and nerves also include non-neuronal Schwann cells
Schwann cells
that coat the axons in myelin. Each nerve is a cordlike structure containing bundles of axons. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium. The axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, and each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium
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Systems Neuroscience
Systems neuroscience
Systems neuroscience
is a subdiscipline of neuroscience and systems biology that studies the function of neural circuits and systems. It is an umbrella term, encompassing a number of areas of study concerned with how nerve cells behave when connected together to form neural pathways and networks. At this level of analysis, neuroscientists study how different neural circuits analyze sensory information, form perceptions of the external world, make decisions, and execute movements. Researchers in systems neuroscience are concerned with the relation between molecular and cellular approaches to understanding brain structure and function, as well as with the study of high-level mental functions such as language, memory, and self-awareness (which are the purview of behavioral and cognitive neuroscience). Systems neuroscientists typically employ techniques for understanding networks of neurons while they function in vivo (e.g
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Egyptian Hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
(/ˈhaɪrəˌɡlɪf, -roʊ-/[2][3]) were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. It combined logographic, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters.[4][5] Cursive hieroglyphs
Cursive hieroglyphs
were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late derivation from demotic. The use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC (Naqada III),[1] with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty
Second Dynasty
(28th century BC)
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