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Nerve Fascicle
A nerve fascicle or fasciculus is a bundle of one or more funiculus.[1][2] A nerve fascicle refers to nerves in the peripheral nervous system; in the central nervous system this is known as a tract. See also[edit]Perineurium Epineurium Endoneurium Nerve Nervous tissue Medial longitudinal fasciculusReferences[edit]^ Gray, Henry; Lewis, Warren Harmon (1918). Anatomy of the human body. Harold B. Lee Library. Philadelphia : Lea & Febiger.  ^ Siegel, A. & Sapru, H. (2011)
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Tibial Nerve
The tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus.Contents1 Structure1.1 Popliteal fossa 1.2 Back of the leg 1.3 Foot2 Additional images 3 External links 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] Popliteal fossa[edit] Tibia
Tibia
nerve is the larger terminal branch of the sciatic nerve with root values of L4, L5, S1, S2, and S3. It lies superficial (or posterior) to the popliteal vessels, extending from the superior angle to the inferior angle of the popliteal fossa, crossing the popliteal vessels from lateral to medial side. It gives off branches as shown below:[1]Muscular branches - Muscular branches arises from the distal part of the popliteal fossa. It supplies the medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris and popliteus muscles
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Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus
The medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) is one of a pair of crossed fiber tracts (group of axons), on each side of the brainstem. These bundles of axons are situated near the midline of the brainstem and are composed of both ascending and descending fibers that arise from a number of sources and terminate in different areas. MLF is the main central connection for the oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, and abducens nerve
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Connective Tissue
Connective tissue
Connective tissue
(CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. It develops from the mesoderm. Connective tissue
Connective tissue
is found in between other tissues everywhere in the body, including the nervous system. In the central nervous system, the three outer membranes (the meninges) that envelop the brain and spinal cord are composed of connective tissue. They support and protect the body. All connective tissue consists of three main components: fibers (elastic and collagenous fibers),[1] ground substance and cells. Not all authorities include blood[2] or lymph as connective tissue because they lack the fiber component
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Terminologia Anatomica
Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is the international standard on human anatomic terminology
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Commissure
A commissure (/ˈkɒməʃər/) is the place where two things abut or are joined. The term is used especially in the fields of anatomy and biology.The most common usage of the term refers to the brain's commissures, of which there are five. Such a commissure is a bundle of commissural fibers as a tract that crosses the midline at its level of origin or entry (as opposed to a decussation of fibers that cross obliquely). The five are the anterior commissure, posterior commissure, corpus callosum, commissure of fornix (hippocampal commissure), and habenular commissure. They consist of fibre tracts that connect the two cerebral hemispheres and span the longitudinal fissure. In the spinal cord there are the anterior white commissure, and the gray commissure. Commissure also often refers to cardiac anatomy of heart valves
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Decussation
Decussation
Decussation
is used in biological contexts to describe a crossing (Latin: the roman numeral for ten, deca, is an uppercase 'X'). (In Latin anatomical terms the form decussatio is used, e.g. decussatio pyramidum.) Similarly, the anatomical term chiasma is named after the Greek uppercase 'Χ', chi). Examples include:In the brain, where nerve fibers obliquely cross from one lateral part to the other, that is to say they cross at a level other than their origin. See for examples Decussation of pyramids
Decussation of pyramids
and sensory decussation. Decussation
Decussation
describes the point where the nerves cross from one side of the brain to the other, and typically the nerves from the left side of the body decussate to the right side of the brain and the nerves from the right side of the body decussate to the left brain, however depending on the function of the nerves the level of decussation is variable
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Projection Fiber
Projection, projector, or projective may refer to:Contents1 Chemistry 2 Mathematics 3 Other 4 See alsoProjection, the display of images by a projector, using devices such asMovie projector Video projector Overhead projector Slide projector Camera obscura Projection screenMap projection, reducing the surface of a three-dimensional planet to a flat map (geography) Graphical projection, the production of a two-dimensional image of a three-dimensional objectParallel projectionOrthographic projection, including:Multiview projectionPlan, or floor plan view Elevation, usually a side view of an exterior Section, a view of the interior at a particular cutting planeAxonometric projection, including:Isometric projection Dimetric projection Trimetric
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Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy
is an English-language textbook of human anatomy originally written by Henry Gray
Henry Gray
and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter. Earlier editions were called Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical and Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied, but the book's name is commonly shortened to, and later editions are titled, Gray's Anatomy. The book is widely regarded as an extremely influential work on the subject, and has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day
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Public Domain
The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired,[1] have been forfeited,[2] have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable.[3] For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven, and most early silent films are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software created prior to 1974.[5]
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Meninges
The meninges (/məˈnɪndʒiːz/,[1][2] singular: meninx (/ˈmiːnɪŋks/ or /ˈmɛnɪŋks/[3]), from Ancient Greek: μῆνιγξ, translit. mēninx, lit. 'membrane',[4] adjectival: meningeal /məˈnɪndʒəl/) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord. In mammals, the meninges are the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater. Cerebrospinal fluid is located in the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. The primary function of the meninges is to protect the central nervous system.Contents1 Structure1.1 Dura mater 1.2 Arachnoid mater 1.3 Pia mater 1.4 Leptomeninges 1.5 Spaces2 Clinical significance 3 Other animals 4 Additional images 5 ReferencesStructure[edit] Dura mater[edit] Main article: Dura mater The dura mater (Latin: tough mother) (also rarely called meninx fibrosa or pachymeninx) is a thick, durable membrane, closest to the skull and vertebrae
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Anatomical Terminology
Anatomical terminology
Anatomical terminology
is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology
Anatomical terminology
uses many unique terms, suffixes, and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Latin. These terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise reducing ambiguity and errors. Also, since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less likely to change, and less likely to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand; and could be on the palm-side or back-side of the arm
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Foundational Model Of Anatomy
The Foundational Model of Anatomy
Anatomy
Ontology (FMA) is a reference ontology for the domain of anatomy
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Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS). The PNS consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord.[1] The main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a relay between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body.[2] Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the vertebral column and skull, or by the blood–brain barrier, which leaves it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. In the somatic nervous system, the cranial nerves are part of the PNS with the exception of the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), along with the retina. The second cranial nerve is not a true peripheral nerve but a tract of the diencephalon.[3] Cranial nerve
Cranial nerve
ganglia originated in the CNS
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Nerve
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts.[1][2] Neurons are sometimes called nerve cells, though this term is potentially misleading since many neurons do not form nerves, and nerves also include non-neuronal Schwann cells
Schwann cells
that coat the axons in myelin. Each nerve is a cordlike structure containing bundles of axons. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium. The axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, and each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium
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Nerve Tract
A nerve tract,[1] is a bundle of nerve fibers (axons) connecting nuclei of the central nervous system.[2][3] In the peripheral nervous system this is known as a nerve fascicle. The main nerve tracts in the central nervous system are of three types – association fibers, commissural fibers, and projection fibers. A tract may also be referred to as a commissure, fasciculus or decussation. A commissure connects the two cerebral hemispheres at the same levels. Examples are the posterior commissure and the corpus callosum. A decussation is a connection made by fibres that cross at different levels (obliquely), such as the sensory decussation
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