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Neoclassicism (music)
Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the interwar period, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint. As such, neoclassicism was a reaction against the unrestrained emotionalism and perceived formlessness of late Romanticism, as well as a "call to order" after the experimental ferment of the first two decades of the twentieth century
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Claudio Monteverdi
Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (Italian: [ˈklaudjo monteˈverdi] ( listen); 15 May 1567 (baptized) – 29 November 1643) was an Italian composer, string player and choirmaster. A composer of both secular and sacred music, and a pioneer in the development of opera, he is considered a crucial transitional figure between the Renaissance and the Baroque
Baroque
periods of music history. Born in Cremona, where he undertook his first musical studies and compositions, Monteverdi developed his career first at the court of Mantua
Mantua
(c. 1590–1613) and then until his death in the Republic of Venice where he was maestro di capella at the basilica of San Marco. His surviving letters give insight into the life of a professional musician in Italy of the period, including problems of income, patronage and politics. Much of Monteverdi's output, including many stage works, has been lost
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Gian Francesco Malipiero
Gian Francesco Malipiero (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒaɱ franˈtʃesko maliˈpjɛːro]; 18 March 1882 – 1 August 1973) was an Italian composer, musicologist, music teacher and editor.Contents1 Life1.1 Early years 1.2 Musical career2 Compositions 3 Musical theory and style 4 Reception 5 Selected works5.1 Orchestral music 5.2 Chamber music 5.3 Piano music 5.4 Vocal works 5.5 Operas 5.6 Film scores6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksLife[edit] Early years[edit] Born in Venice
Venice
into an aristocratic family, the grandson of the opera composer Francesco Malipiero, Gian Francesco Malipiero was prevented by family troubles from pursuing his musical education in a consistent manner. His father separated from his mother in 1893 and took Gian Francesco to Trieste, Berlin
Berlin
and eventually to Vienna
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Giovanni Battista Pergolesi
Giovanni Battista Draghi (Italian pronunciation: [dʒoˈvanni batˈtista ˈdraːɡi]; 4 January 1710 – 16 or 17 March 1736), often referred to as Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (Italian: [perɡoˈleːzi]), was an Italian composer, violinist and organist. His best-known works include his Stabat Mater and the opera La serva padrona
La serva padrona
(The Maid Turned Mistress). His compositions include comic operas and sacred music. He died at a very young age of 26 of tuberculosis.Contents1 Biography 2 Pergolesi's works on screen 3 Selected works3.1 Sacred music 3.2 Operas 3.3 Orchestral Works 3.4 Keyboard Works 3.5 Chamber Works4 Notes 5 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Jesi
Jesi
in what is now the Province of Ancona (but was then part of the Papal States), he was commonly given the nickname "Pergolesi", a demonym indicating in Italian the residents of Pergola, Marche, the birthplace of his ancestors
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Concerto In E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks)
A concerto (/kənˈtʃɛərtoʊ/; plural concertos, or concerti from the Italian plural) is a musical composition usually composed in three movements, in which, usually, one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band. It is accepted that its characteristics and definition have changed over time. In the 17th century, sacred works for voices and orchestra were typically called concertos,[1] as reflected by J. S
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W. H. Auden
Wystan Hugh Auden[1] (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) was an English-American poet. Auden's poetry was noted for its stylistic and technical achievement, its engagement with politics, morals, love, and religion, and its variety in tone, form and content. He is best known for love poems such as "Funeral Blues", poems on political and social themes such as "September 1, 1939" and "The Shield of Achilles", poems on cultural and psychological themes such as The Age of Anxiety, and poems on religious themes such as "For the Time Being" and "Horae Canonicae."[2][3][4] He was born in York, grew up in and near Birmingham
Birmingham
in a professional middle-class family. He attended English independent (or public) schools and studied English at Christ Church, Oxford
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Max Reger
Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger (19 March 1873 – 11 May 1916), commonly known as Max Reger, was a German composer, pianist, organist, conductor, and academic teacher. He worked as a concert pianist, as a musical director at the Leipzig
Leipzig
University Church, as a professor at the Royal Conservatory in Leipzig, and as a music director at the court of Duke Georg II of Saxe-Meiningen. Reger first composed mainly Lieder, chamber music, choral music and works for piano and organ. He later turned to orchestral compositions, such as the popular Variations and Fugue
Fugue
on a Theme by Mozart, and to works for choir and orchestra such as Gesang der Verklärten
Gesang der Verklärten
(1903), Der 100. Psalm
Der 100

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George Enescu
George Enescu
George Enescu
(Romanian pronunciation: [ˈd͡ʒe̯ord͡ʒe eˈnesku] ( listen); 19 August 1881 – 4 May 1955), known in France as Georges Enesco, was a Romanian composer, violinist, pianist, conductor, and teacher. He is regarded by many as Romania's most important musician.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Reception 3 Selected works3.1 Operas 3.2 Symphonies 3.3 Other orchestral works 3.4 Chamber works3.4.1 String quartets 3.4.2 Sonatas 3.4.3 Other chamber works3.5 Piano music 3.6 Songs4 Media 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksBiography[edit]Young George EnescuEnescu was born in Romania, in the village of Liveni (later renamed "George Enescu" in his honor), in Dorohoi County
Dorohoi County
at the time, today Botoşani County. He showed musical talent from early in his childhood. A child prodigy, Enescu began experimenting with composing at an early age
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The Queen Of Spades (opera)
The Queen of Spades, Op. 68 (Russian: Пиковая дама, Pikovaya dama, French: La Dame de Pique)[1] is an opera in 3 acts (7 scenes) by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
to a Russian libretto by the composer's brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based on a short story of the same name by Alexander Pushkin, but the plot was dramatically altered. The premiere took place in 1890 in St. Petersburg (at the Mariinsky Theatre), Russia.[2]Contents1 Composition history 2 Performance history 3 Roles 4 Synopsis4.1 Act 1 4.2 Act 2 4.3 Act 35 Principal arias and numbers 6 Instrumentation 7 In popular culture 8 Recordings 9 References 10 External linksComposition history[edit] The management of the Imperial Theatre offered a commission to Tchaikovsky to write an opera based on the plot sketch by Ivan Vsevolozhsky in 1887/88. After turning it down initially, Tchaikovsky accepted it in 1889
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Edvard Grieg
Edvard Hagerup
Edvard Hagerup
Grieg (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈedvɑɖ ˈhɑːɡərʉp ˈɡriɡː]; 15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist. He is widely considered one of the leading Romantic era composers, and his music is part of the standard classical repertoire worldwide
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Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
(German pronunciation: [ˈfʁants ˈlɪst]; Hungarian: Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc, pronounced [ˈlist ˈfɛrɛnt͡s];[n 1] 22 October 1811 – 31 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary. Liszt gained renown in Europe during the early nineteenth century for his prodigious virtuosic skill as a pianist. He was a friend, musical promoter and benefactor to many composers of his time, including Frédéric Chopin, Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, Robert Schumann, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg, Ole Bull, Joachim Raff, Mikhail Glinka, and Alexander Borodin.[1] As a composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the New German School
New German School
(Neudeutsche Schule)
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Concerto Grosso
The concerto grosso (pronounced [konˈtʃɛrto ˈɡrɔsso]; Italian for big concert(o), plural concerti grossi [konˈtʃɛrti ˈɡrɔssi]) is a form of baroque music in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno or concerto grosso). This is in contrast to the solo concerto which features a single solo instrument with the melody line, accompanied by the orchestra.[1]Contents1 History 2 Concertino 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingHistory[edit] The form developed in the late seventeenth century, although the name was not used at first. Alessandro Stradella
Alessandro Stradella
seems to have written the first music in which two groups of different sizes are combined in the characteristic way
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New Objectivity
The New Objectivity
New Objectivity
(in German: Neue Sachlichkeit) was a movement in German art that arose during the 1920s as a reaction against expressionism. The term was coined by Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub, the director of the Kunsthalle in Mannheim, who used it as the title of an art exhibition staged in 1925 to showcase artists who were working in a post-expressionist spirit.[1] As these artists—who included Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, and George Grosz—rejected the self-involvement and romantic longings of the expressionists, Weimar intellectuals in general made a call to arms for public collaboration, engagement, and rejection of romantic idealism. Although principally describing a tendency in German painting, the term took a life of its own and came to characterize the attitude of public life in Weimar Germany as well as the art, literature, music, and architecture created to adapt to it
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Erik Satie
Éric Alfred Leslie Satie (French: [eʁik sati]; 17 May 1866 – 1 July 1925), who signed his name Erik Satie
Erik Satie
after 1884, was a French composer and pianist. Satie was a colourful figure in the early 20th-century Parisian avant-garde. His work was a precursor to later artistic movements such as minimalism, Surrealism, repetitive music, and the Theatre of the Absurd.[1] An eccentric, Satie was introduced as a "gymnopedist" in 1887, shortly before writing his most famous compositions, the Gymnopédies
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Baroque Music
Baroque
Baroque
music (US: /bəˈroʊk/ or UK: /bəˈrɒk/) is a style of Western art music
Western art music
composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.[1] This era followed the Renaissance music
Renaissance music
era, and was followed in turn by the Classical era. Baroque
Baroque
music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, and is now widely studied, performed, and listened to
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Program Music
Program music or programme music is a type of art music that attempts to musically render an extra-musical narrative. The narrative itself might be offered to the audience in the form of program notes, inviting imaginative correlations with the music. A classic example is Hector Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique, which relates a drug-induced series of morbid fantasies concerning the unrequited love of a sensitive poet involving murder, execution, and the torments of Hell. The genre culminates in the symphonic works of Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
that include narrations of the adventures of Don Quixote, Till Eulenspiegel, the composer's domestic life, and an interpretation of Nietzsche's philosophy of the Superman
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