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Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
(from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin
Latin
classicus, "of the highest rank")[1] is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity. Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
was born in Rome
Rome
in the mid-18th century, at the time of the rediscovery of Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum, but its popularity spread all over Europe as a generation of European art students finished their Grand Tour
Grand Tour
and returned from Italy to their home countries with newly rediscovered Greco-Roman ideals.[2][3] The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism
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Nicholas Poussin
Nicolas Poussin
Nicolas Poussin
(French: [nikɔlɑ pusɛ̃]; June 1594 – 19 November 1665) was the leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome. Most of his works were on religious and mythological subjects painted for a small group of Italian and French collectors. He returned to Paris for a brief period to serve as First Painter to the King under Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu, but soon returned to Rome
Rome
and resumed his more traditional themes. In his later years he gave growing prominence to the landscapes in his pictures. His work is characterized by clarity, logic, and order, and favors line over color
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Architecture
Architecture
Architecture
is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.[3] Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. The term architecture is also used metaphorically to refer to the design of organizations and other abstract concepts
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Philosophy
Philosophy
Philosophy
(from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom"[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE)
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Sculpture
Sculpture
Sculpture
is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes originally used carving (the removal of material) and modelling (the addition of material, as clay), in stone, metal, ceramics, wood and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an almost complete freedom of materials and process
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Plato
Plato
Plato
(/ˈpleɪtoʊ/;[a][1] Greek: Πλάτων[a] Plátōn, pronounced [plá.tɔːn] in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423[b] – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece
Classical Greece
and the founder of the Academy
Academy
in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world
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Antiquities
Antiquities
Antiquities
are objects from Antiquity, especially the civilizations of the Mediterranean: the Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
of Greece and Rome, Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and the other Ancient Near Eastern cultures. Artifacts from earlier periods such as the Mesolithic, and other civilizations from Asia and elsewhere may also be covered by the term
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English Literature
This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States. However, until the early 19th century, it only deals with the literature of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Ireland. It does not include literature written in the other languages of Britain. The English language
English language
has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years.[1] The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the fifth century, are called Old English
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Christoph Willibald Gluck
Christoph Willibald ( Ritter
Ritter
von) Gluck (German: [ˈkʁɪstɔf ˈvɪlɪbalt ˈɡlʊk]; 2 July 1714 – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera
French opera
in the early classical period. Born in the Upper Palatinate
Upper Palatinate
(now part of Germany) and raised in Bohemia,[1] he gained prominence at the Habsburg court at Vienna, where he brought about the practical reform of opera's dramaturgical practices for which many intellectuals had been campaigning. With a series of radical new works in the 1760s, among them Orfeo ed Euridice and Alceste, he broke the stranglehold that Metastasian opera seria had enjoyed for much of the century. The strong influence of French opera
French opera
in these works encouraged Gluck to move to Paris, which he did in November 1773
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Phidias
Phidias
Phidias
or Pheidias (/ˈfɪdiəs/; Greek: Φειδίας, Pheidias; c. 480 – 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter, and architect. His statue of Zeus
Zeus
at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Phidias
Phidias
also designed the statues of the goddess Athena
Athena
on the Athenian Acropolis, namely the Athena
Athena
Parthenos inside the Parthenon, and the Athena
Athena
Promachos, a colossal bronze which stood between it and the Propylaea,[1] a monumental gateway that served as the entrance to the Acropolis
Acropolis
in Athens
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Alceste (Gluck)
Alceste, Wq. 37 (the later French version is Wq. 44), is an opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck
Christoph Willibald Gluck
from 1767. The libretto (in Italian) was written by Ranieri de' Calzabigi and based on the play Alcestis
Alcestis
by Euripides
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Ornamentation (music)
In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes—typically, added notes—that are not essential to carry the overall line of the melody (or harmony), but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line (or harmony), provide added interest and variety, and give the performer the opportunity to add expressiveness to a song or piece. Many ornaments are performed as "fast notes" around a central, main note. There are many types of ornaments, ranging from the addition of a single, short grace note before a main note to the performance of a virtuostic and flamboyant trill. The amount of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive (it was often extensive in the Baroque
Baroque
period, from 1600 to 1750) to relatively little or even none
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Greek Tragedy
Greek tragedy
Greek tragedy
is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
and Asia Minor. It reached its most significant form in Athens
Athens
in the 5th century BC, the works of which are sometimes called Attic tragedy. Greek tragedy is widely believed to be an extension of the ancient rites carried out in honor of Dionysus, and it heavily influenced the theatre of Ancient Rome and the Renaissance. Tragic plots were most often based upon myths from the oral traditions of archaic epics. In tragic theatre, however, these narratives were presented by actors
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Judgement Of Paris
Setting: Troy
Troy
(modern Hisarlik, Turkey) Period: Bronze Age Traditional dating: c. 1194–1184 BC Modern dating: c
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Catherine The Great
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress
Empress
of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader. She came to power following a coup d'état when her husband, Peter III, was assassinated. Under her reign, Russia was revitalised; it grew larger and stronger, and was recognised as one of the great powers of Europe. In her accession to power and her rule of the empire, Catherine often relied on her noble favourites, most notably Grigory Orlov
Grigory Orlov
and Grigory Potemkin
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