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Nemertea
See text.Synonyms [1]Nemertini Nemertinea Rhyncocoela Nemertea
Nemertea
is a phylum of invertebrate animals also known as "ribbon worms" or "proboscis worms".[2] Alternative names for the phylum have included Nemertini, Nemertinea and Rhynchocoela.[1] Although most are less than 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long, one specimen has been estimated at 54 metres (177 ft). Most are very slim, usually only a few millimeters wide, although a few have relatively short but wide bodies. Many have patterns of yellow, orange, red and green coloration. The foregut, stomach and intestine run a little below the midline of the body, the anus is at the tip of the tail, and the mouth is under the front. A little above the gut is the rhynchocoel, a cavity which mostly runs above the midline and ends a little short of the rear of the body
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Romania
Coordinates: 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25Romania România  (Romanian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Deșteaptă-te, române! '"Awaken thee, Romanian!"Location of  Romania  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Bucharest 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100Official languages Romanian[1]Recognised minority languages[2]Albanian Armenian Bulgarian Czech Croatian German Greek Italian Macedonian Hungarian Polish Romani Russian Rusyn Serbian Slovak Tatar Turkish Ukrainian YiddishEthnic groups (2011[3])88.9% Romanians 6.1% Hungarians 3.0% Roma 0.2% Ukrainians 0.2% GermansDemonym RomanianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentKlaus Iohannis• Pr
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Clam
Clam
Clam
is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs. The word is often applied only to those that are edible and live as infauna, spending most of their lives partially buried in the sand of the ocean floor. Clams have two shells of equal size connected by two adductor muscles and have a powerful burrowing foot.[1] Clams in the culinary sense do not live attached to a substrate (whereas oysters and mussels do) and do not live near the bottom (whereas scallops do). In culinary usage, clams are commonly eaten marine bivalves, as in clam digging and the resulting soup, clam chowder
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Ventral Nerve Cord
The ventral nerve cord (VNC) makes up a part of the central nervous system of some phyla of the bilaterians, particularly within the nematodes, annelids and the arthropods. It usually consists of cerebral ganglia anteriorly with the nerve cords running down the ventral ("belly", as opposed to back) plane of the organism. Ventral nerve cords from anterior to posterior (the thoracic and abdominal tagma in the arthropods) are made up of segmented ganglia that are connected by a tract of nerve fibers passing from one side to the other of the nerve cord called commissures [1]. The complete system bears some likeness to a rope ladder
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Chemoreceptors
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal. This signal may be in the form of an action potential if the chemoreceptor is a neuron (nerve cell),[1] or in the form of a neurotransmitter that can activate a nearby nerve fiber if the chemosensor is a specialized sensory receptor cell, such as the taste receptor in a taste bud[2][3] or in an internal peripheral chemoreceptor such as the carotid body (ex, in chemotherapy).[4] In more general terms, a chemosensor detects toxic or hazardous chemicals in the internal or external environment of the human body (e.x
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Ocelli
A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit[1][2]) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens. A "simple eye" is so called in distinction from a multi-lensed "compound eye", and is not necessarily at all simple in the usual sense of the word. The eyes of humans and large animals, and camera lenses are classed as "simple" because in both cases a single lens collects and focuses light onto the retina or film. Many insects have compound eyes consisting of multiple lenses (up to tens of thousands), each focusing light onto a small number of retinula cells. The structure of an animal's eye is determined by the environment in which it lives, and the behavioural tasks it must fulfill to survive. Arthropods differ widely in the habitats in which they live, as well as their visual requirements for finding food or conspecifics, and avoiding predators
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Respiration (physiology)
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. The physiological definition of respiration differs from the biochemical definition, which refers to cellular respiration, a metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy (in the form of ATP) by oxidizing nutrients and releasing waste products. Although physiologic respiration is necessary to sustain cellular respiration and thus life in animals, the processes are distinct: cellular respiration takes place in individual cells of the organism, while physiologic respiration concerns the diffusion and transport of metabolites between the organism and the external environment. In animals with lungs, physiological respiration involves respiratory cycles of inhaled and exhaled breaths. Inhalation
Inhalation
(breathing in) is usually an active movement
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Lateral (anatomy)
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. All vertebrates (including humans) have the same basic body plan – they are strictly bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and largely bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood.[1] That is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the centre.[2] For these reasons, the basic directional terms can be considered to be those used in vertebrates. By extension, the same terms are used for many other (invertebrate) organisms as well. While these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology, there are unavoidable, sometimes dramatic, differences between some disciplines
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Cilia
A cilium (from Latin, meaning 'eyelash';[1] the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are slender protuberances that project from the much larger cell body.[2] There are two types of cilia: motile cilia and nonmotile, or primary, cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles
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Mucus
Mucus
Mucus
(/ˈmjuːkəs/ MEW-kəs) is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes. It is typically produced from cells found in mucous glands, although it may also originate from mixed glands, which contain both serous and mucous cells. It is a viscous colloid containing inorganic salts, antiseptic enzymes (such as lysozymes), immunoglobulins, and glycoproteins such as lactoferrin[1] and mucins, which are produced by goblet cells in the mucous membranes and submucosal glands. Mucus
Mucus
serves to protect epithelial cells (that line the tubes) in the respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, visual, and auditory systems; the epidermis in amphibians; and the gills in fish, against infectious agents such as fungi, bacteria[2] and viruses
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Carnivores
A carnivore /ˈkɑːrnɪvɔːr/, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.[1][2] Animals that depend solely on animal flesh for their nutrient requirements are called obligate carnivores while those that also consume non-animal food are called facultative carnivores.[2] Omnivores also consume both animal and non-animal food, and, apart from the more general definition, there is no clearly defined ratio of plant to animal material that would distinguish a facultative carnivore from an omnivore.[3] A carnivore that sits at the top of the food chain is termed an apex predator. The word "carnivore" is only refers to the mammalian order Carnivora, but this is somewhat misleading
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Crustacean
Thylacocephala? † BranchiopodaPhyllopoda SarsostracaRemipedia Cephalocarida MaxillopodaThecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida CopepodaOstracodaMyodocopa PodocopaMalacostracaPhyllocarida Hoplocarida EumalacostracaCladistically included but traditionally excluded groupsHexapodsCrustaceans (Crustacea /krʌˈsteɪʃə/) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.[1] The crustacean group is usually treated as a subphylum, and thanks to recent molecular studies it is now well accepted that the crustacean group is paraphyletic, and comprises all animals in the Pancrustacea clade other than hexapods.[2] Some crustaceans are more closely related to insects and other hexapods than they are to certain other crustaceans. The 67,000 described species range in size from
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Filter Feeders
Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure. Some animals that use this method of feeding are clams, krill, sponges, baleen whales, and many fish (including some sharks). Some birds, such as flamingos and certain species of duck, are also filter feeders. Filter feeders can play an important role in clarifying water, and are therefore considered ecosystem engineers.Contents1 Fish 2 Crustaceans 3 Baleen
Baleen
whales 4 Bivalves 5 Sponges 6 Cnidarians 7 Flamingos 8 Pterosaurs 9 Marine reptiles 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External linksFish[edit] See also: Forage fish Most forage fish are filter feeders
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Scavenger
Scavenging
Scavenging
is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.[1] The eating of carrion from the same species is referred to as cannibalism. Scavengers play an important role in the ecosystem by consuming the dead animal and plant material
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Commensal
Commensalism, in ecology, is a class of relationships between two organisms where one organism benefits from the other without affecting it. This is in contrast with mutualism, in which both organisms benefit from each other, amensalism, where one is harmed while the other is unaffected, and parasitism, where one benefits while the other is harmed
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Mantle (mollusc)
The mantle (also known by the Latin word pallium meaning mantle, robe or cloak, adjective pallial) is a significant part of the anatomy of molluscs: it is the dorsal body wall which covers the visceral mass and usually protrudes in the form of flaps well beyond the visceral mass itself. In many species of molluscs the epidermis of the mantle secretes calcium carbonate and conchiolin, and creates a shell. In sea slugs there is a progressive loss of the shell and the mantle becomes the dorsal surface of the animal. The words mantle and pallium both originally meant cloak or cape, see mantle (vesture)
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