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Nematocera
Axymyiomorpha Culicomorpha Blephariceromorpha Bibionomorpha Psychodomorpha Ptychopteromorpha TipulomorphaThe Nematocera
Nematocera
(thread-horns) are a suborder of elongated flies with thin, segmented antennae and mostly aquatic larvae, consisting of the mosquitoes, crane flies, gnats, black flies, and midges. Nematocera
Nematocera
are typically characterized by filamentous, multisegmented antennae which may be plumose in some males. Examples of the Nematocera
Nematocera
include the mosquitoes (Culicidae), crane flies (Tipulidae) and black flies (Simuliidae). Many of the remaining families (especially Mycetophilidae, Anisopodidae, and Sciaridae), are called gnats, while others (especially Chironomidae, Cecidomyiidae, and Ceratopogonidae) are called midges. The larvae are mostly aquatic and have distinct heads with mouthparts that may be modified for filter feeding
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Aedes Aegypti
Aedes
Aedes
aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is a mosquito that can spread dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika fever, Mayaro and yellow fever viruses, and other disease agents. The mosquito can be recognized by white markings on its legs and a marking in the form of a lyre on the upper surface of its thorax
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Antenna (biology)
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods. Antennae are connected to the first one or two segments of the arthropod head. They vary widely in form, but are always made of one or more jointed segments. While they are typically sensory organs, the exact nature of what they sense and how they sense it is not the same in all groups. Functions may variously include sensing touch, air motion, heat, vibration (sound), and especially smell or taste.[1][2] Antennae are sometimes modified for other purposes, such as mating, brooding, swimming, and even anchoring the arthropod to a substrate.[2] Larval arthropods have antennae that differ from those of the adult. Many crustaceans, for example, have free-swimming larvae that use their antennae for swimming
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,[1][3] which includes insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. The term Arthropoda as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Insect
See text.SynonymsEctognatha EntomidaInsects or Insecta (from Latin
Latin
insectum) are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; usually, insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As used here, the term is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae
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Orthorrhapha
Orthorrhapha is a circumscriptional name which historically was used for an infraorder of Brachycera, one of the two suborders into which the order Diptera, the flies, are divided. As the group was paraphyletic, it has not been used in classifications in the last decade, and is effectively obsolete. However, many catalogs, checklists, and older works still contain the name. The taxa that used to be in the Orthorrhapha now comprise all of the infraorders in Brachycera excluding the Muscomorpha (= "Cyclorrhapha"). The recent revision of the taxonomy of the order Diptera by Pape et al.[1] revived the name Orthorrhapha. References[edit]^ Pape, T., Blagoderov, V., & Mostovski, M. B. (2011). Order Diptera Linnaeus, 1758. Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness
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Tipulidae
See text Crane fly
Crane fly
is a common name referring to any member of the insect family Tipulidae, of the order Diptera, true flies in the superfamily Tipuloidea. Cylindrotominae, Limoniinae, and Pediciinae have been ranked as subfamilies of Tipulidae by most authors,[1] though occasionally elevated to family rank. In the most recent classifications, only Pediciidae
Pediciidae
is now ranked as a separate family, due to considerations of paraphyly.[2] In colloquial speech, crane flies are sometimes known as mosquito hawks or daddy longlegs, a term also used to describe opiliones or the family Pholcidae, both of which are arachnids. The larvae of crane flies are known commonly as leatherjackets.[3] Crane flies are found worldwide, though individual species usually have limited ranges
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Crane Fly
See text Crane fly
Crane fly
is a common name referring to any member of the insect family Tipulidae, of the order Diptera, true flies in the superfamily Tipuloidea. Cylindrotominae, Limoniinae, and Pediciinae have been ranked as subfamilies of Tipulidae by most authors,[1] though occasionally elevated to family rank. In the most recent classifications, only Pediciidae
Pediciidae
is now ranked as a separate family, due to considerations of paraphyly.[2] In colloquial speech, crane flies are sometimes known as mosquito hawks or daddy longlegs, a term also used to describe opiliones or the family Pholcidae, both of which are arachnids. The larvae of crane flies are known commonly as leatherjackets.[3] Crane flies are found worldwide, though individual species usually have limited ranges
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Pupa
A pupa (Latin: pupa for doll, plural: pupae) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages. The pupal stage is found only in holometabolous insects, those that undergo a complete metamorphosis, with four life stages: egg, larva, pupa and imago. The processes of entering and completing the pupal stage are controlled by the insect's hormones, especially juvenile hormone, prothoracicotropic hormone, and ecdysone. The pupae of different groups of insects have different names such as chrysalis for the pupae of butterflies and tumbler for those of the mosquito family
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Larva
A larva (plural: larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle. The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies) including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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Simuliidae
GeneraAraucnephia Araucnephioides Archicnephia Austrosimulium Baisomyia Cnephia Cnesia Cnesiamima Crozetia Ectemnia Gigantodax Greniera Gydarina Gymnopais Kovalevimyia Levitinia Lutzsimulium Mayacnephia Metacnephia Paracnephia Parasimulium Paraustrosimulium Pedrowygomyia Prosimulium Simuliites Simulimima Simulium Stegopterna Sulcicnephia Titanopteryx Tlalocomyia Twinnia Data related to Black fly
Black fly
at WikispeciesA black fly (sometimes called a buffalo gnat, turkey gnat, or white socks) is any member of the family Simuliidae of the Culicomorpha infraorder. They are related to the Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, and Thaumaleidae. Over 2,200 species of black flies have been formally named, of which 15 are extinct.[1] They are divided into two subfamilies: Parasimuliinae contains only one genus and four species; Simuliinae
Simuliinae
contains all the rest
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Black Fly
GeneraAraucnephia Araucnephioides Archicnephia Austrosimulium Baisomyia Cnephia Cnesia Cnesiamima Crozetia Ectemnia Gigantodax Greniera Gydarina Gymnopais Kovalevimyia Levitinia Lutzsimulium Mayacnephia Metacnephia Paracnephia Parasimulium Paraustrosimulium Pedrowygomyia Prosimulium Simuliites Simulimima Simulium Stegopterna Sulcicnephia Titanopteryx Tlalocomyia Twinnia Data related to Black fly
Black fly
at WikispeciesA black fly (sometimes called a buffalo gnat, turkey gnat, or white socks) is any member of the family Simuliidae of the Culicomorpha infraorder. They are related to the Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, and Thaumaleidae. Over 2,200 species of black flies have been formally named, of which 15 are extinct.[1] They are divided into two subfamilies: Parasimuliinae contains only one genus and four species; Simuliinae
Simuliinae
contains all the rest
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GNAT
A gnat /ˈnæt/ is any of many species of tiny flying insects in the dipterid suborder Nematocera, especially those in the families Mycetophilidae, Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
and Sciaridae.[1] They can be both biting and non-biting. Most often they fly in large numbers, called clouds. "Gnat" is a loose descriptive category rather than a phylogenetic or other technical term, so there is no scientific consensus on what constitutes a gnat. University of Kentucky entomologists consider only non-biting flies to be gnats,[citation needed] while the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln classify fungus gnats in addition to non-biting flies as gnats.[citation needed] Certain universities also distinguish eye gnats: the Smithsonian Institution describes them as “non-biting flies, no bigger than a few grains of salt, ..
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Psychodidae
Drain flies, sink flies, filter flies,[1] or sewer gnats (Psychodidae) are small true flies (Diptera) with short, hairy bodies and wings giving them a "furry" moth-like appearance, hence one of their common names, moth flies.[1] There are more than 2600 described species worldwide, most of them native to the humid tropics
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