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Nelson Mandela
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela
Mandela
(/mænˈdɛlə/[1], Xhosa: [xoliɬaˈɬa manˈdɛla]; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress
African National Congress
(ANC) party from 1991 to 1997. A Xhosa, Mandela
Mandela
was born to the Thembu royal family in Mvezo, British South Africa
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African Nationalism
African nationalism
African nationalism
is an umbrella term which refers to a group of political ideologies, mainly within Sub-Saharan Africa, which are based on the idea of national self-determination and the creation of nation states.[1] The ideology emerged under European colonial rule during the 19th and 20th centuries and was loosely inspired by nationalist ideas from Europe. Originally, African nationalism
African nationalism
was based on demands for self-determination and played an important role in forcing the process of decolonisation of Africa
Africa
(c
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Secretary General
Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, power, or importance in the organization. Secretaries announce important events and communicate to the organization. The term is derived from the Latin word secernere, "to distinguish" or "to set apart", the passive participle (secretum) meaning "having been set apart", with the eventual connotation of something private or confidential, as with the English word secret. A secretarius was a person, therefore, overseeing business confidentially, usually for a powerful individual (a king, pope, etc.). The official title of the leader of most Communist and Socialist political parties is the "General Secretary of the Central Committee" or "First Secretary of the Central Committee"
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Philanthropy
Philanthropy
Philanthropy
means the love of humanity. A conventional modern definition is "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life," which combines an original humanistic tradition with a social scientific aspect developed in the 20th century. The definition also serves to contrast philanthropy with business endeavors, which are private initiatives for private good, e.g., focusing on material gain, and with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public good, e.g., focusing on provision of public services.[1] A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist. Philanthropy
Philanthropy
has distinguishing characteristics separate from charity; not all charity is philanthropy, or vice versa, though there is a recognized degree of overlap in practice
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Respiratory Infection
Respiratory tract
Respiratory tract
infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. An infection of this type is normally further classified as an upper respiratory tract infection (URI or URTI) or a lower respiratory tract infection (LRI or LRTI)
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Alma Mater
Alma mater
Alma mater
(Latin: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. [rarely used] almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college. In English, this is largely a U.S. usage referring to a school or university from which an individual has graduated or to a song or hymn associated with a school.[1] The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students.[2] Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele,[3] and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
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Union Of South Africa
The Union of South Africa (Dutch: Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Afrikaans: Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of four previously separate British colonies: the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River colonies. It included the territories formerly part of the Boer republics annexed in 1902, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. Following the First World War, the Union of South Africa was granted the administration of South West Africa (formerly a German colony and today the sovereign state of Namibia) as a League of Nations mandate, which became treated in most respects as if it were another province of the Union, but never was formally annexed. The Union of South Africa was a self-governing autonomous dominion of the British Empire. Its independence from Britain was confirmed in the Balfour Declaration 1926 and the Statute of Westminster 1931
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Cape Province
The Province of the Cape of Good Hope[2] (Afrikaans: Provinsie van die Kaap die Goeie Hoop), commonly referred to as the Cape Province (Afrikaans: Kaapprovinsie), was a province in the Union of South Africa and subsequently the Republic of South Africa. It encompassed the old Cape Colony, and had Cape Town
Cape Town
as its capital
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Presidential Medal Of Freedom
The Presidential Medal of Freedom
Medal of Freedom
is an award bestowed by the President of the United States
President of the United States
and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States. It recognizes those people who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors".[2] The award is not limited to U.S. citizens and, while it is a civilian award, it can also be awarded to military personnel and worn on the uniform. It was established in 1963 by President John F. Kennedy,[3] superseding the Medal of Freedom
Medal of Freedom
that was established by President Harry S. Truman
Harry S

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His Excellency
Excellency
Excellency
is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy. Once entitled to the title "Excellency", the holder usually[citation needed] retains the right to that courtesy throughout his or her lifetime, although in some cases the title is attached to a particular office, and is held only for the duration of that office.[1] Generally people addressed as Excellency
Excellency
are heads of state, heads of government, governors, ambassadors, certain ecclesiastics, royalty, and others holding equivalent rank (e.g., heads of international organizations).[citation needed] It is sometimes misinterpreted as a title of office in itself, but in fact is an honorific that precedes various titles (such as Mr. President, and so on), both in speech and in writing
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Universal Suffrage
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of wealth, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.[1][2] In its original 19th-century usage by political reformers, universal suffrage was understood to mean only universal manhood suffrage; the vote was extended to women later, during the women's suffrage movement.[3][4] There are variations among countries in terms of specifics of the right to vote; the minimum age is usually between 18 and 25 years (see age of majority) and "the insane, certain classes of convicted criminals, and those punished for certain electoral offenses" sometimes lack the right to vote.[2] In the United States, the term "suffrage" is often associated specifically with women's suffrage; a movement to extend the franchise to women began in the mid-nineteenth century and culminated in 1920, when the
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Racism
Racism
Racism
is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. Today, the use of the term "racism" does not easily fall under a single definition.[1] The ideology underlying racist practices often includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior.[2] Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa, and slavery and segregation in the United States
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Politics Of South Africa
Template:Use South EnglishSouth AfricaThis article is part of a series on the politics and government of South AfricaConstitutionBill of RightsExecutivePresidentCyril RamaphosaDeputy PresidentDavid MabuzaCabinet Shadow CabinetLegislativeNational Council of ProvincesChairpersonThandi ModiseNational AssemblySpeakerBaleka MbeteLeader of the OppositionMmusi MaimaneJudiciaryChief JusticeMogoeng MogoengDeputy Chief Justice Bess Nkabinde
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Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize (Swedish: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901,[3] it has been awarded annually (with some exceptions) to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".[4] As per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year
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Deputy President Of South Africa
The Deputy President of South Africa
President of South Africa
is the deputy head of government of South Africa. They are a member of the National Assembly and the Cabinet. The Deputy President is constitutionally required to "assist the President in the execution of the functions of government", and may be assigned any government portfolio by presidential proclamation. The Deputy President performs the duties of the President of South Africa when the President is outside the country's borders, unable to fulfill the duties of the office, or when the Presidency is vacant. Under the interim constitution (valid from 1994 to 1996), there was a Government of National Unity, in which a member of parliament from the largest opposition party was entitled to a position as deputy president. Along with Mbeki, the previous State President, F. W
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Order Of Lenin
The Order of Lenin
Order of Lenin
(Russian: Орден Ленина, romanized: Orden Lenina, pronounced [ˈordʲɪn ˈlʲenʲɪnə]), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930. The order was the highest civilian decoration bestowed by the Soviet Union. The order was awarded to:Civilians for outstanding services rendered to the State Members of the armed forces for exemplary service Those who promoted friendship and cooperation between peoples and in strengthening peace Those with meritorious services to the Soviet state and society[1] From 1944 to 1957, before the institution of specific length of service medals, the Order of Lenin
Order of Lenin
was also used to reward 25 years of conspicuous military service
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