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Needle Gun
A needle gun is a firearm that has a needle-like firing pin, which can pass through the paper cartridge case to strike a percussion cap at the bullet base
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Needlegun
A needlegun, also known as a needler, flechette gun or fletcher, is a firearm that fires small, sometimes fin-stabilized, metal darts or flechettes.Contents1 History 2 Advantages and disadvantages 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The first projectiles in early gun systems dating from the 14th century were typically hand wrought iron flechettes wrapped in a leather sabot. However, due to the expense and trouble of making these darts in a pre-industrial society, they were soon replaced with the less accurate stone cannonball. Flechettes again came into mass use in the years before World War I. Starting as early as 1910, the French began experimenting with air-dropped flechettes; flechettes dropped from planes were used extensively during the war.[1] A June 1978 issue of Gallery Magazine[2] quotes L. Fletcher Prouty observing a test of flechette weapons in 1960 and the testimony of William E. Colby
William E

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Austro-Prussian War
Prussian-led German Confederation
German Confederation
states Prussia Brunswick Mecklenburg-Schwerin Saxe-Coburg & Gotha Saxe-Altenburg Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Anhalt Schwarzburg Waldeck Lippe Saxe-Lauenburg Lübeck Bremen Hamburg Italy Austrian-led German Confederation
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain; and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in.[1] However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Franco-Prussian War
Baden  Bavaria Württemberg Hesse-Darmstadt French Empirea German Empired French RepublicbCommanders and leaders William I Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke Crown Prince Friedrich Prince Friedrich Karl Karl F. von Steinmetz Albrecht von Roon Napoleon
Napoleon
III (POW) F. A
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Minié Rifle
The Minié rifle
Minié rifle
was an important infantry rifle of the mid-19th century. A version was adopted in 1849 following the invention of the Minié ball
Minié ball
in 1847 by the French Army
French Army
captain Claude-Étienne Minié of the Chasseurs
Chasseurs
d' Orléans
Orléans
and Henri-Gustave Delvigne. The bullet was designed to allow rapid muzzle loading of rifles, and was an innovation that brought about the widespread use of the rifle as the main battlefield weapon for individual soldiers. The French adopted it following difficulties encountered by the French army in Northern Africa, where their muskets were outranged by long-barreled weapons which were handcrafted by their Algerian opponents
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Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe ɡariˈbaldi]); 4 July 1807 in Nice
Nice
– 2 June 1882 on Caprera) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist.[1] He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times[5] and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Italy
and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay
Uruguay
and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification
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Battle Of Mentana
The Battle of Mentana
Mentana
was fought on November 3, 1867 near the village of Mentana
Mentana
between French-Papal troops and the Italian volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, who were attempting to capture Rome, then the main centre of the peninsula still outside of the newly unified Kingdom of Italy. The battle ended in a victory by the French-Papal troops.Contents1 Background 2 Garibaldi's expedition 3 Invasion of Lazio 4 Battle 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksBackground[edit] When the first Italian Parliament met in Turin, Victor Emmanuel II
Victor Emmanuel II
of Savoy was proclaimed King of Italy
Italy
on March 17, 1861, and Rome
Rome
was declared capital of Italy
Italy
on March 27, 1861
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Antoine Alphonse Chassepot
Antoine Alphonse Chassepot
Chassepot
(1833–1905) was a French inventor and gunsmith. He was born in 1833 at Mutzig
Mutzig
in Alsace. He invented the breech-loading, center-fire needle gun rifle known as the Chassepot. It was adopted by the French army in 1866 for which he received the Cross of the Légion d'honneur
Légion d'honneur
and a gratuity of 30,000 francs.[1] References[edit]^ John Walter (2006). Rifles of the World (3 ed.). Iola: Krause Publications. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-89689-241-5. Authority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 47545339 GND: 117655384 Léonore: LH/500/45This French engineer or inventor biographical article is a stub
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Chassepot
The Chassepot, officially known as Fusil modèle 1866, was a bolt action military breechloading rifle, famous as the arm of the French forces in the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
of 1870/1871. It replaced an assortment of Minié muzzleloading rifles many of which were converted in 1867 to breech loading (the Tabatière rifles). A great improvement to existing military rifles in 1866, the Chassepot
Chassepot
marked the commencement of the era of modern bolt action, breech-loading, military rifles
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Berdan Rifle
The Berdan rifle
Berdan rifle
(винтовка Бердана/vintovka Berdana in Russian) is a Russian rifle created by famous American firearms expert and inventor Hiram Berdan
Hiram Berdan
in 1868. It was standard issue in the Russian army from 1870 to 1891, when it was replaced by the Mosin–Nagant
Mosin–Nagant
rifle
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Principality Of Schaumburg-Lippe
Schaumburg-Lippe was created as a county in 1647, became a principality in 1807, a free state in 1918, and was until 1946 a small state in Germany, located in the present day state of Lower Saxony, with its capital at Bückeburg.Contents1 History 2 Rulers of Schaumburg-Lippe2.1 Counts of Schaumburg-Lippe (1640–1807) 2.2 Princes of Schaumburg-Lippe (1807–1918) 2.3 Heads of the House of Schaumburg-Lippe, post monarchy3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Schaumburg-Lippe was formed as a county in 1647 through the division of the County of Schaumburg
County of Schaumburg
by treaties between the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
and the Count of Lippe. The division occurred because Count Otto V of Holstein-Schaumburg had died in 1640 leaving no male heir
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Battle Of Königgrätz
The Battle
Battle
of Königgrätz (German: Schlacht bei Königgrätz), also known as the Battle
Battle
of Sadowa, Sadová, or Hradec Králové, was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire
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Johann Nicolaus Von Dreyse
Johann Nicolaus von Dreyse
Johann Nicolaus von Dreyse
(20 November 1787 – 9 December 1867) was a German firearms inventor and manufacturer. He is most famous for submitting the Dreyse needle gun
Dreyse needle gun
in 1836 to the Prussian army, which was adopted for service in December 1840 as the Leichte Perscussions-Gewehr M 1841 – a name deliberately chosen to mislead about the rifle's mechanism – later renamed Zündnadelgewehr M 1841 in 1855.[1] Dreyse was born in Sömmerda
Sömmerda
(then ruled by the Archbishopric of Mainz), the son of a locksmith. Dreyse worked from 1809 to 1814 in the Parisian gun factory of Jean-Samuel Pauly, a Swiss who designed several experimental breech-loading military rifles. Returning to Sömmerda, he in 1824 founded a company to manufacture percussion caps
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