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Nearestneighbor Interpolation Nearestneighbor interpolation Nearestneighbor interpolation (also known as proximal interpolation or, in some contexts, point sampling) is a simple method of multivariate interpolation in one or more dimensions. Interpolation Interpolation is the problem of approximating the value of a function for a nongiven point in some space when given the value of that function in points around (neighboring) that point. The nearest neighbor algorithm selects the value of the nearest point and does not consider the values of neighboring points at all, yielding a piecewiseconstant interpolant [...More...]  "Nearestneighbor Interpolation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Dimension In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.[1][2] Thus a line has a dimension of one because only one coordinate is needed to specify a point on it – for example, the point at 5 on a number line. A surface such as a plane or the surface of a cylinder or sphere has a dimension of two because two coordinates are needed to specify a point on it – for example, both a latitude and longitude are required to locate a point on the surface of a sphere. The inside of a cube, a cylinder or a sphere is threedimensional because three coordinates are needed to locate a point within these spaces. In classical mechanics, space and time are different categories and refer to absolute space and time. That conception of the world is a fourdimensional space but not the one that was found necessary to describe electromagnetism [...More...]  "Dimension" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Mipmap In computer graphics, mipmaps (also MIP maps) or pyramids [1][2][3] are precalculated, optimized sequences of images, each of which is a progressively lower resolution representation of the same image. The height and width of each image, or level, in the mipmap is a power of two smaller than the previous level. Mipmaps do not have to be square. They are intended to increase rendering speed and reduce aliasing artifacts. A highresolution mipmap image is used for highdensity samples, such as for objects close to the camera. Lowerresolution images are used as the object appears farther away. This is a more efficient way of downfiltering (minifying) a texture than sampling all texels in the original texture that would contribute to a screen pixel; it is faster to take a constant number of samples from the appropriately downfiltered textures [...More...]  "Mipmap" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Realtime Computing In computer science, realtime computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "realtime constraint", for example from event to system response.[1] Realtime programs must guarantee response within specified time constraints, often referred to as "deadlines".[2] The correctness of these types of systems depends on their temporal aspects as well as their functional aspects. Realtime responses are often understood to be in the order of milliseconds, and sometimes microseconds [...More...]  "Realtime Computing" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

3D Rendering 3D rendering 3D rendering is the 3D computer graphics 3D computer graphics process of automatically converting 3D wire frame models into 2D images on a computer. 3D renders may include photorealistic effects or nonphotorealistic rendering.Contents1 Rendering methods 2 Realtime 3 Non realtime 4 Reflection and shading models4.1 Surface shading algorithms 4.2 Reflection 4.3 Shading 4.4 Transport 4.5 Projection5 See also 6 References 7 External linksRendering methods[edit]A photo realistic 3D render of 6 computer fans using radiosity rendering, DOF and procedural materialsRendering is the final process of creating the actual 2D image or animation from the prepared scene. This can be compared to taking a photo or filming the scene after the setup is finished in real life. Several different, and often specialized, rendering methods have been developed [...More...]  "3D Rendering" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Zeroorder Hold The zeroorder hold (ZOH) is a mathematical model of the practical signal reconstruction done by a conventional digitaltoanalog converter (DAC). That is, it describes the effect of converting a discretetime signal to a continuoustime signal by holding each sample value for one sample interval. It has several applications in electrical communication.Contents1 Timedomain model 2 Frequencydomain model 3 See also 4 ReferencesTimedomain model[edit]Figure 1. The timeshifted and timescaled rect function used in the timedomain analysis of the ZOH.Figure 2. Piecewiseconstant Piecewiseconstant signal xZOH(t).Figure 3 [...More...]  "Zeroorder Hold" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Rounding Rounding Rounding a numerical value means replacing it by another value that is approximately equal but has a shorter, simpler, or more explicit representation; for example, replacing $23.4476 with $23.45, or the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression √2 with 1.414. Rounding Rounding is often done to obtain a value that is easier to report and communicate than the original. Rounding Rounding can also be important to avoid misleadingly precise reporting of a computed number, measurement or estimate; for example, a quantity that was computed as 123,456 but is known to be accurate only to within a few hundred units is better stated as "about 123,500". On the other hand, rounding of exact numbers will introduce some roundoff error in the reported result [...More...]  "Rounding" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Applied Mathematics Applied mathematics Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry. Thus, applied mathematics is a combination of mathematical science and specialized knowledge. The term "applied mathematics" also describes the professional specialty in which mathematicians work on practical problems by formulating and studying mathematical models. In the past, practical applications have motivated the development of mathematical theories, which then became the subject of study in pure mathematics where abstract concepts are studied for their own sake [...More...]  "Applied Mathematics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Special Special Special or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special Special (album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special [...More...]  "Special" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Natural Neighbor Interpolation Natural neighbor interpolation is a method of spatial interpolation, developed by Robin Sibson.[1] The method is based on Voronoi tessellation of a discrete set of spatial points [...More...]  "Natural Neighbor Interpolation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Voronoi Diagram In mathematics, a Voronoi diagram Voronoi diagram is a partitioning of a plane into regions based on distance to points in a specific subset of the plane. That set of points (called seeds, sites, or generators) is specified beforehand, and for each seed there is a corresponding region consisting of all points closer to that seed than to any other. These regions are called Voronoi cells. The Voronoi diagram Voronoi diagram of a set of points is dual to its Delaunay triangulation. It is named after Georgy Voronoi, and is also called a Voronoi tessellation, a Voronoi decomposition, a Voronoi partition, or a Dirichlet tessellation (after Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet) [...More...]  "Voronoi Diagram" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Image Scaling In computer graphics and digital imaging, image scaling refers to the resizing of a digital image. In video technology, the magnification of digital material is known as upscaling or resolution enhancement. When scaling a vector graphic image, the graphic primitives that make up the image can be scaled using geometric transformations, with no loss of image quality. When scaling a raster graphics image, a new image with a higher or lower number of pixels must be generated. In the case of decreasing the pixel number (scaling down) this usually results in a visible quality loss [...More...]  "Image Scaling" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Nearest Neighbor Search Nearest neighbor search (NNS), as a form of proximity search, is the optimization problem of finding the point in a given set that is closest (or most similar) to a given point. Closeness is typically expressed in terms of a dissimilarity function: the less similar the objects, the larger the function values. Formally, the nearestneighbor (NN) search problem is defined as follows: given a set S of points in a space M and a query point q ∈ M, find the closest point in S to q. Donald Knuth Donald Knuth in vol. 3 of The Art of Computer Programming (1973) called it the postoffice problem, referring to an application of assigning to a residence the nearest post office. A direct generalization of this problem is a kNN search, where we need to find the k closest points. Most commonly M is a metric space and dissimilarity is expressed as a distance metric, which is symmetric and satisfies the triangle inequality [...More...]  "Nearest Neighbor Search" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Interpolation In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points. In engineering and science, one often has a number of data points, obtained by sampling or experimentation, which represent the values of a function for a limited number of values of the independent variable. It is often required to interpolate (i.e., estimate) the value of that function for an intermediate value of the independent variable. A different problem which is closely related to interpolation is the approximation of a complicated function by a simple function. Suppose the formula for some given function is known, but too complex to evaluate efficiently. A few known data points from the original function can be used to create an interpolation based on a simpler function [...More...]  "Interpolation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Multivariate Interpolation In numerical analysis, multivariate interpolation or spatial interpolation is interpolation on functions of more than one variable. The function to be interpolated is known at given points ( x i , y i , z i , … ) displaystyle (x_ i ,y_ i ,z_ i ,dots ) and the interpolation problem consist of yielding values at arbitrary points ( x , y , z , … ) displaystyle (x,y,z,dots ) . Multivariate interpolation is particularly important in geostatistics, where it is used to create a digital elevation model from a set of points on the Earth's surface (for example, spot heights in a topographic survey or depths in a hydrographic survey).Contents1 Regular grid1.1 Any dimension 1.2 [...More...]  "Multivariate Interpolation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Texture Filtering In computer graphics, texture filtering or texture smoothing is the method used to determine the texture color for a texture mapped pixel, using the colors of nearby texels (pixels of the texture). There are two main categories of texture filtering, magnification filtering and minification filtering.[1] Depending on the situation texture filtering is either a type of reconstruction filter where sparse data is interpolated to fill gaps (magnification), or a type of antialiasing (AA), where texture samples exist at a higher frequency than required for the sample frequency needed for texture fill (minification). Put simply, filtering describes how a texture is applied at many different shapes, size, angles and scales [...More...]  "Texture Filtering" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 