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Naval Fleet
A fleet or naval fleet is a large formation of warships, which is controlled by one leader[1] and the largest formation in any navy. A fleet at sea is the direct equivalent of an army on land.Contents1 Purpose 2 The modern fleet 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksPurpose[edit] Fleets are usually, but not necessarily, permanent formations and are generally assigned to a particular ocean or sea. Most fleets are named after that ocean or sea, but the convention in the United States Navy is to use numbers. A fleet is normally commanded by an admiral, who is often also a commander in chief, but many fleets have been or are commanded by vice admirals or even rear admirals. Most fleets are divided into several squadrons, each under a subordinate admiral. Those squadrons in turn are often divided into divisions. In the age of sail, fleets were divided into van, centre and rear squadrons, named after each squadron’s place in the line of battle
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Operation Enduring Freedom
Conflict ongoing Taliban
Taliban
regime deposed, but their insurgency still fights NATO
NATO
and Afghan government forces
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NATO
"A mind unfettered in deliberation" "L'esprit libre dans la consultation"[2]Formation 4 April 1949; 69 years ago (1949-04-04)Type Military allianceHeadquarters Brussels, BelgiumMembership29 states Albania Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Turkey United Kingdom United StatesOfficial languageEnglish French[3]Secretary GeneralJens StoltenbergChairman of the NATO
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Rear Admiral
Rear admiral
Rear admiral
is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore and captain, and below that of a vice admiral. It is generally regarded as the lowest of the "admiral" ranks, which are also sometimes referred to as "flag officers" or "flag ranks". In many navies it is referred to as a two-star rank (OF-7). It originated from the days of naval sailing squadrons and can trace its origins to the Royal Navy. Each naval squadron would be assigned an admiral as its head, who would command from the centre vessel and direct the activities of the squadron. The admiral would in turn be assisted by a vice admiral, who commanded the lead ships which would bear the brunt of a naval battle. In the rear of the naval squadron, a third admiral would command the remaining ships and, as this section of the squadron was considered to be in the least danger, the admiral in command of the rear would typically be the most junior of the squadron admirals
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Maestrale Class Frigate
The Maestrale class is a class of frigates of the Italian Navy. The class is composed of eight vessels, all of which were built by Fincantieri S.p. A, Riva Trigoso, except for Grecale, which was built by Fincantieri S.p.A. – Muggiano, La Spezia. The Maestrale-class frigates were primarily designed for anti-submarine warfare (ASW), however the ships are highly flexible so they are also capable of anti-air and anti-surface operations. Ships of this class have been widely used in various international missions, either under NATO or UN flag, and during normal operations of the Italian Navy. The first of these ships entered in service in early 1982. The rest of the fleet was launched over the next three years
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Cruisers
A cruiser is a type of warship. The term has been in use for several hundred years, and has had different meanings throughout this period. During the Age of Sail, the term cruising referred to certain kinds of missions – independent scouting, commerce protection, or raiding – fulfilled by a frigate or sloop, which were the cruising warships of a fleet. Modern cruisers are generally the largest ships in a fleet after aircraft carriers, and can usually perform several roles. In the middle of the 19th century, cruiser came to be a classification for the ships intended for cruising distant waters, commerce raiding, and scouting for the battle fleet
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Holy League (Mediterranean)
The Holy League (Latin: Liga Sancta, Spanish: Liga Santa, Italian: Lega Santa), of 1571 was arranged by Pope Pius V and included the major Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean except France. It was intended to break the Ottoman Turks' control of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and was formally concluded on 25 May 1571. Its members were:the Papal States under Pius V, Habsburg Spain under Philip II (including Naples and Sicily), the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Knights of Malta, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Order of Saint Stephen under Cosimo I de' Medici, the Duchy of Savoy under Emmanuel Philibert, the Duchy of Urbino under Guidobaldo II della Rovere, the Duchy of Parma under Ottavio Farnese.[citation needed]These states were to have a force of 200 galleys, 100 other ships, 50,000 infantry, 4,500 cavalry and adequate artillery ready by 1 April each year
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Battle Of Lepanto Order Of Battle
This is the order of battle during the Battle of Lepanto on 7 October 1571 in which the Holy League deployed 6 galleasses and 206 galleys, while the Ottoman forces numbered 216 galleys and 56 galliots.Contents1 Fleet of the Holy League¹1.1 Left Wing 1.2 Center Division 1.3 Right Wing 1.4 Rearguard 1.5 Vanguard2 Ottoman Fleet²2.1 Left Wing 2.2 Centre Division 2.3 Right Wing 2.4 Rearguard3 Notes on ship nomenclature 4 ReferencesFleet of the Holy League¹[edit] The combined Christian fleet was placed under the command of John of Austria (Don Juan de Austria) with Marcantonio Colonna as his principal deputy. Left Wing[edit] Commanded by Agostino Barbarigo (53 galleys, 2 galleasses)Agostino BarbarigoVenetian Galleasses (2)Galleass of Ambrogio Bragadin Galleass of Antonio BragadinVenetian Galleys (39)Capitana Lanterna (flagship lantern) of Venice (L) – Agostino Barbarigo †, provveditore generale Capitan
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Battle Of Lepanto (1571)
Coordinates: 38°15′N 21°15′E / 38.250°N 21.250°E / 38.250; 21.250Battle of LepantoPart of the Fourth Ottoman-Venetian War, Ottoman-Habsburg wars
Ottoman-Habsburg wars
and The Ottoman-Portuguese WarThe Battle of Lepanto, unknown artist, late 16th century[1]Date 7 October 1571Location Gulf of Patras, Ionian SeaResult Holy League victory[a][2]Belligerents Holy League: Republic of Venice Habsburg Spain Portugal Papal States  Republic of Genoa Knights of Malta Grand Duchy of Tuscany  Duchy of Savoy Duchy of Urbino Knight
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Operation Active Endeavour
 NATO Albania  Bulgaria  Canada  Croatia  Denmark  Estonia  Germany  Greece  Italy  Norway  Poland  Portugal  Spain  Turkey  United Kingdom  United StatesNon-NATO: Georgia  Israel[1]  Morocco  New Zealand[2]  Russia (2006)  UkraineUnspecified terrorist and smuggling groups Operation Active Endeavour was a maritime operation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It operated in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea and was designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction. It had collateral benefits in enhanced security of shipping in general
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Commander In Chief
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a nation-state's executive leadership—a head of state, a head of government . Often, a given country's commander-in-chief (if held by an official) need not be or have been a commissioned officer or even a veteran
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Surface Combatant
Surface combatants (or surface ships or surface vessels) are a subset of naval warships which are designed for warfare on the surface of the water, with their own weapons. They are generally ships built to fight other ships, submarines or aircraft, and can carry out several other missions including counter-narcotics operations and maritime interdiction. Their primary purpose is to engage space, air, surface, and submerged targets with weapons deployed from the ship itself, rather than by manned carried craft.[1] The term is primarily used to mean any modern vessel type that is not a submarine; although a "surface ship" may range in size from a small cutter to an aircraft carrier, the weapons and tactics have some commonality, more so than for submerged vessels
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Submarines
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability. The term most commonly refers to a large, crewed vessel. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. The noun submarine evolved as a shortened form of submarine boat;[1] by naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size (boat is usually reserved for seagoing vessels of relatively small size). Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, and they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first widely used during World War I (1914–1918), and now figure in many navies large and small
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Blue-water Navy
A blue-water navy is a maritime force capable of operating globally, essentially across the deep waters of open oceans.[1] While definitions of what actually constitutes such a force vary, there is a requirement for the ability to exercise sea control at wide ranges. The term "blue-water navy" is a maritime geographical-term in contrast with "brown-water navy" and "green-water navy". The Defense Security Service
Defense Security Service
of the United States has defined the blue-water navy as "a maritime force capable of sustained operation across the deep waters of open oceans. A blue-water navy allows a country to project power far from the home country and usually includes one or more aircraft carriers
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Green-water Navy
Green-water navy
Green-water navy
is terminology created to describe a naval force that is designed to operate in its nation's littoral zones and has the competency to operate in the open oceans of its surrounding region.[1] It is a relatively new term, and has been created to better distinguish, and add nuance, between two long-standing descriptors: blue-water navy and brown-water navy. It is a non-doctrinal naval term used in different ways. It originates with the United States Navy, who use it to refer to the portion of their fleet that specializes in offensive operations in coastal waters. Nowadays such ships rely on stealth or speed to avoid destruction by shore batteries or land-based aircraft. The US Navy
US Navy
has also used the term to refer to the first phase of the expansion of China's navy into a full blue-water navy
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Littoral
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore. In coastal environments the littoral zone extends from the high water mark, which is rarely inundated, to shoreline areas that are permanently submerged. It always includes this intertidal zone and is often used to mean the same as the intertidal zone. However, the meaning of "littoral zone" can extend well beyond the intertidal zone. There is no single definition. What is regarded as the full extent of the littoral zone, and the way the littoral zone is divided into subregions, varies in different contexts (lakes and rivers have their own definitions). The use of the term also varies from one part of the world to another, and between different disciplines. For example, military commanders speak of the littoral in ways that are quite different from marine biologists. The adjacency of water gives a number of distinctive characteristics to littoral regions
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