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Natural Number
In mathematics , the NATURAL NUMBERS are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country"). In common language, words used for counting are "cardinal numbers " and words used for ordering are "ordinal numbers ". Some definitions, including the standard ISO 80000-2 , begin the natural numbers with 0 , corresponding to the NON-NEGATIVE INTEGERS 0, 1, 2, 3, …, whereas others start with 1, corresponding to the POSITIVE INTEGERS 1 , 2 , 3 , …. Texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the WHOLE NUMBERS, but in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers (including negative integers)
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Divisibility
A DIVISIBILITY RULE is a shorthand way of determining whether a given integer is divisible by a fixed divisor without performing the division, usually by examining its digits. Although there are divisibility tests for numbers in any radix , or base, and they are all different, this article presents rules and examples only for decimal , or base 10, numbers. Martin Gardner
Martin Gardner
explained and popularized these rules in his September 1962 "Mathematical Games" column in Scientific American
Scientific American

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History Of Ancient Egypt
The HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile
Nile
valley to the Roman conquest , in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Period is dated from the 32nd century BC , when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule , in 332 BC
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Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences
The MUSEUM OF NATURAL SCIENCES (French : Muséum des sciences naturelles, Dutch : Museum
Museum
voor Natuurwetenschappen) is a museum in the Belgian capital of Brussels
Brussels
dedicated to natural history. The museum is a part of the ROYAL BELGIAN INSTITUTE OF NATURAL SCIENCES. Its most important pieces are 30 fossilized Iguanodon skeletons, which were discovered in 1878 in Bernissart . The dinosaur hall of the museum is the world's largest museum hall completely dedicated to dinosaurs. Another famous piece is the Ishango bone , which was discovered in 1960 by Jean de Heinzelin de Braucourt . Like in most museums, there is a research department and a public exhibit department
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Egyptian Hieroglyphs
EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS (/ˈhaɪrəˌɡlɪf, -roʊ-/ ) were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
. It combined logographic , syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts are derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late derivation from demotic. Use of hieroglyphic writing arises from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age , around the 32nd century BC ( Naqada III
Naqada III
), with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty (28th century BC)
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Imaginary Unit
The IMAGINARY UNIT or UNIT IMAGINARY NUMBER (I) is a solution to the quadratic equation x2 + 1 = 0. Since there is no real number with this property, it extends the real numbers, and under the assumption that the familiar properties of addition and multiplication (namely closure , associativity , commutativity and distributivity ) continue to hold for this extension, the complex numbers are generated by including it. Imaginary numbers are an important mathematical concept, which extends the real number system ℝ to the complex number system ℂ, which in turn provides at least one root for every nonconstant polynomial P(x). (See Algebraic closure and Fundamental theorem of algebra .) The term "imaginary " is used because there is no real number having a negative square . There are two complex square roots of −1, namely i and −i, just as there are two complex square roots of every real number other than zero , which has one double square root
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Louvre
7.3 million (2016) * Ranked 1st nationally * Ranked 1st globally DIRECTOR Jean-Luc Martinez CURATOR Marie-Laure de Rochebrune PUBLIC TRANSIT ACCESS * Palais Royal – Musée du Louvre * Louvre-Rivoli WEBSITE www.louvre.frThe LOUVRE (US : /ˈluːv(rə)/ ), or the LOUVRE MUSEUM (French : Musée du Louvre ( listen )), is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris
Paris
, France
France
. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine
Seine
in the city's 1st arrondissement (district or ward). Approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres (782,910 square feet). In 2016, the Louvre
Louvre
was the world\'s most visited art museum , receiving 7.3 million visitors
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Karnak
The KARNAK TEMPLE COMPLEX, commonly known as KARNAK (/ˈkɑːr.næk/ ), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples , chapels, pylons, and other buildings. Construction at the complex began during the reign of Senusret I in the Middle Kingdom and continued into the Ptolemaic period , although most of the extant buildings date from the New Kingdom . The area around Karnak
Karnak
was the ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut ("The Most Selected of Places") and the main place of worship of the eighteenth dynasty Theban Triad with the god Amun
Amun
as its head. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes . The Karnak
Karnak
complex gives its name to the nearby, and partly surrounded, modern village of El-Karnak, 2.5 kilometres (1.6 miles) north of Luxor
Luxor

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Partition (number Theory)
In number theory and combinatorics , a PARTITION of a positive integer n, also called an INTEGER PARTITION, is a way of writing n as a sum of positive integers. Two sums that differ only in the order of their summands are considered the same partition. (If order matters, the sum becomes a composition .) For example, 4 can be partitioned in five distinct ways: 4 3 + 1 2 + 2 2 + 1 + 1 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 The order-dependent composition 1 + 3 is the same partition as 3 + 1, while the two distinct compositions 1 + 2 + 1 and 1 + 1 + 2 represent the same partition 2 + 1 + 1. A summand in a partition is also called a PART. The number of partitions of n is given by the partition function p(n). So p(4) = 5. The notation λ ⊢ n means that λ is a partition of n. Partitions can be graphically visualized with Young diagrams or Ferrers diagrams
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Ishango Bone
The ISHANGO BONE is a bone tool , dated to the Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
era. It is a dark brown length of bone, the fibula of a baboon , with a sharp piece of quartz affixed to one end, perhaps for engraving. It was first thought to be a tally stick , as it has a series of what has been interpreted as tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the tool. It has also been suggested that the scratches might have been to create a better grip on the handle or for some other non-mathematical reason. The Ishango bone was found in 1960 by Belgian Jean de Heinzelin de Braucourt while exploring what was then the Belgian Congo . It was discovered in the area of Ishango near the Semliki River
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Measurement
MEASUREMENT is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. The scope and application of a measurement is dependent on the context and discipline. In the natural sciences and engineering , measurements do not apply to nominal properties of objects or events, which is consistent with the guidelines of the International vocabulary of metrology published by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures . However, in other fields such as statistics as well as the social and behavioral sciences , measurements can have multiple levels , which would include nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. Measurement
Measurement
is a cornerstone of trade , science , technology , and quantitative research in many disciplines. Historically, many measurement systems existed for the varied fields of human existence to facilitate comparisons in these fields
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Linguists
LINGUISTICS is the scientific study of language , and involves an analysis of language form , language meaning , and language in context . The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BCE Indian grammarian Pāṇini
Pāṇini
, who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī. Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning . Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties. The study of language meaning , on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambiguity
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List Of Continuity-related Mathematical Topics
In mathematics, the terms CONTINUITY, CONTINUOUS, and CONTINUUM are used in a variety of related ways. CONTINUITY OF FUNCTIONS AND MEASURES * Continuous function
Continuous function
. * Absolutely continuous function . * Absolute continuity of a measure with respect to another measure . * Continuous probability distribution . Sometimes this term is used to mean a probability distribution whose cumulative distribution function (c.d.f.) is (simply) continuous. Sometimes it has a less inclusive meaning: a distribution whose c.d.f. is absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue measure
Lebesgue measure

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Discrete Mathematics
DISCRETE MATHEMATICS is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics – such as integers , graphs , and statements in logic – do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics
Discrete mathematics
therefore excludes topics in "continuous mathematics" such as calculus and analysis . Discrete objects can often be enumerated by integers. More formally, discrete mathematics has been characterized as the branch of mathematics dealing with countable sets (sets that have the same cardinality as subsets of the natural numbers, including rational numbers but not real numbers)
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Combinatorics
COMBINATORICS is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of finite or countable discrete structures . Aspects of combinatorics include counting the structures of a given kind and size (enumerative combinatorics ), deciding when certain criteria can be met, and constructing and analyzing objects meeting the criteria (as in combinatorial designs and matroid theory), finding "largest", "smallest", or "optimal" objects (extremal combinatorics and combinatorial optimization ), and studying combinatorial structures arising in an algebraic context, or applying algebraic techniques to combinatorial problems (algebraic combinatorics ). Combinatorial problems arise in many areas of pure mathematics , notably in algebra , probability theory , topology , and geometry , and combinatorics also has many applications in mathematical optimization , computer science , ergodic theory and statistical physics
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Primary School
A PRIMARY SCHOOL (or ELEMENTARY SCHOOL in American English
American English
and often in Canadian English
Canadian English
) is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to twelve, coming after preschool and before secondary school . (In some countries there is an intermediate stage of middle school between primary and secondary education.) In most parts of the world, primary education is the first stage of compulsory education , and is normally available without charge, but may be offered in a fee-paying independent school . The term GRADE SCHOOL is sometimes used in the US, although this term may refer to both primary education and secondary education . The term primary school is derived from the French école primaire, which was first used in 1802
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