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Nationalization

Nationalization, or nationalisation, is the process of transforming privately owned assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.[1] Nationalization usually refers to private assets or to assets owned by lower levels of government (such as municipalities) being transferred to the state. The opposites of nationalization are privatization and demutualization.[citation needed] When previously nationalized assets are privatized and subsequently returned to public ownership at a later stage, they are said to have undergone renationalization. Industries often subject to nationalization include the commanding heights of the economy - telecommunications, electric power, fossil fuels, railways, airlines, iron ore, media, postal services, banks, and water. Nationalization may occur with or without compensation to the former owners
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Mutualism (movement)
Mutualism, also known as the movement of mutuals and the mutualist movement, is a social movement that aims at creating and promoting mutual organizations, mutual insurances and mutual funds. The movement encourages and assists the provision of mutual benefits against risks to those accessing its funds and or the elevation of their material and spiritual living standards by regular payment or contribution.[1][2] Institutionalized through mutual funds, mutualism has been universally recognized as a generator or embryo of classical forecast and modern social security systems and currently coexists with them.[3] Although the fall in the popularity of mutual funds in many social environments coincided with the start of public social security system in the early decades of the 20th century, in Europe and other parts of the world mutualism continues to be an important player in the social economy
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Socialist-oriented Market Economy
The socialist-oriented market economy (Vietnamese: Kinh tế thị trường theo định hướng xã hội chủ nghĩa) is the official title given to the current economic system in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. It is described as a multi-sectoral market economy where the state sector plays the decisive role in directing economic development, with the eventual long-term goal of developing socialism.[1] The socialist-oriented market economy is a product of the Đổi Mới economic reforms which led to the replacement of the centrally planned economy with a market-based mixed economy based on the predominance of state-owned industry. These reforms were undertaken to allow Vietnam to integrate with the global market economy
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Planned Economy
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment, production and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic plans and production plans. A planned economy may use centralized, decentralized, participatory or Soviet-type forms of economic planning.[1][2] The level of centralization or decentralization in decision-making and participation depends on the specific type of planning mechanism employed.[3] Socialist states based on the Soviet model have used central planning, although a minority such as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia have adopted some degree of market socialism
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Decentralized Planning (economics)
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment, production and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic plans and production plans. A planned economy may use centralized, decentralized, participatory or Soviet-type forms of economic planning.[1][2] The level of centralization or decentralization in decision-making and participation depends on the specific type of planning mechanism employed.[3] Socialist states based on the Soviet model have used central planning, although a minority such as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia have adopted some degree of market socialism
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Vertical Archipelago
The vertical archipelago is a term coined by sociologist and anthropologist John Victor Murra under the influence of economist Karl Polanyi to describe the native Andean agricultural economic model of accessing and distributing resources. While some cultures developed market economies the predominant models were systems of barter and shared labor. These reached their greatest development under the Inca Empire. Scholars have identified four distinct ecozones, at different elevations. Aside from certain cultures, particularly in the arid northwest coast of Peru and northern Andes, pre-colonial Andean civilizations did not have strong traditions of market-based trade
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Syndicalism

Syndicalism is a radical economic theory in the labour movement that was most active in the early 20th century. Its main idea is the establishment of local worker-based organizations and the advancement of the demands and rights of workers through strikes. According to the Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm, it was predominant in the revolutionary left in the decade which preceded the outbreak of World War I because orthodox Marxism was mostly reformist at that time.[1] Major syndicalist organizations included the General Confederation of Labor in France, the National Confederation of Labour in Spain, the Italian Syndicalist Union, the Free Workers' Union of Germany, and the Argentine Regional Workers' Federation
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