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National Protection War
National Protection Army victoryAbdication of Yuan Shikai Fall of the Empire of China Start of the Warlord EraBelligerents Empire of China Republic of ChinaCommanders and leaders Yuan Shikai Zhang Jingyao Ma Jiceng Cao Kun Feng Yuxiang Lu Jianzhang Cai E Tang Jiyao Liang Qichao Li Liejun Lu RongtingStrength700,000+ 200,000+The National Protection War
National Protection War
(simplified Chinese: 护国战争; traditional Chinese: 護國戰爭; pinyin: Hù guó zhànzhēng), also known as the anti-Monarchy War, was a civil war that took place in China
China
between 1915-16. Only three years earlier the last Chinese dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, had been overthrown and the Republic of China
China
established in its place. The cause of the war was the proclamation by Yuan Shikai, the Republic's President, of himself as a new Emperor of the Empire of China
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Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong
(Chinese: 广东) is a province in South China, located on the South China
South China
Sea coast. Traditionally romanised as Kwangtung, Guangdong
Guangdong
surpassed Henan
Henan
and Sichuan
Sichuan
to become the most populous province in China
China
in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year;[5][6] the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population.[7] This also makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside the former British Raj, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab[8] and the Indian states of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Uttar Pradesh[9]
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Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao
(Chinese: 梁啟超; Cantonese: Lèuhng Kái-chīu; 23 February 1873 – 19 January 1929), courtesy name Zhuoru, art name Rengong, was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher, and reformist who lived during the late Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
and the early Republic of China
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Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Chinese: 广州), formerly known as Canton,[6] is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong
Guangdong
in southern China.[7] Located on the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road[8] and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today, as well as one of China's three largest cities.[9] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is situated at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China, an area that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan, and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet
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Count
Count
Count
(male) or countess (female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.[1] The word count came into English from the French comte, itself from Latin
Latin
comes—in its accusative comitem—meaning “companion”, and later “companion of the emperor, delegate of the emperor”. The adjective form of the word is "comital". The British and Irish equivalent is an earl (whose wife is a "countess", for lack of an English term)
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Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uygur Autonomous Region[6] (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى‎; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwú’ěr Zìzhìqū) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China
China
in the northwest of the country. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and the eighth largest country subdivision in the world, spanning over 1.6 million km2 (640,000 square miles).[1] Xinjiang
Xinjiang
contains the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, which is administered by China. Xinjiang
Xinjiang
borders the countries of Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
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Beijing
Beijing
Beijing
(/beɪˈdʒɪŋ/;[9] Mandarin: [pèi.tɕíŋ] ( listen)), formerly romanized as Peking,[10] is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city
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Kunming
Kunming
Kunming
is the capital and largest city of Yunnan
Yunnan
province in southwest China.[3] Known as Yunnan-Fu until the 1920s, today it is a prefecture-level city and the political, economic, communications and cultural centre of the province as well as the seat of the provincial government. Kunming
Kunming
is also called the Spring city due to its weather. The headquarters of many of Yunnan's large businesses are in Kunming. It was important during World War II
World War II
as a Chinese military center, American air base, and transport terminus for the Burma
Burma
Road. Located in the middle of the Yunnan– Guizhou
Guizhou
Plateau, Kunming
Kunming
is located at an altitude of 1,900 metres (6,234 feet) above sea level and at a latitude just north of the Tropic of Cancer
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
(Chinese: 宋教仁; pinyin: Sòng Jiàorén; Wade–Giles: Sung Chiao-jen, [sʊ̂ŋ tɕjâuɻə̌n]; Given name at birth: Liàn 鍊; Courtesy name: Dùnchū 鈍初) (5 April 1882 – 22 March 1913) was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT). He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang
Kuomintang
party to victory in China's first democratic elections. Evidence strongly implied that China's provisional president, Yuan Shikai, was responsible for his assassination.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Early Involvement in the Kuomintang 1.3 China's first election campaign 1.4 Assassination 1.5 Legacy2 See also 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
was born and educated in Hunan
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Qing Dynasty
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaMongoliaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Civil War
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology,[1] is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or to change government policies.[2] The term is a calque of the Latin bellum civile which was used to refer to the various civil wars of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. A civil war is a high-intensity conflict, often involving regular armed forces, that is sustained, organized and large-scale. Civil wars may result in large numbers of casualties and the consumption of significant resources.[3] Most modern civil wars involve intervention by outside powers. According to Patrick M
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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