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Naskh (script)
NASKH ( Arabic
Arabic
: نسخ‎‎ nasḫ/nasḵ; also known as NASKHI or by its Turkish name NESIH) is a specific calligraphic style for writing in the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
, thought to have been invented by the calligrapher Ibn Muqlah Shirazi (Persian : ابن مقلهٔ شیرازی‎‎). The root of this Arabic
Arabic
term nasakh-a (نسخ) means "to copy". It either refers to the fact that it replaced its predecessor, Kufic
Kufic
script, or that this style allows faster copying of texts. With small modifications, it is the style most commonly used for printing Arabic
Arabic
, Persian , Pashto and Sindhi languages. This type of script was derived from Thuluth
Thuluth
by introducing a number of modifications resulting in smaller size and greater delicacy. It is written using a small, very fine pen known as a cava pen , which makes the script eminently suitable for use in book production. Naskhi was used in copying Qur\'ans , Delails, En-ams and Hadiths . It was also used in commentaries on the Qur'an ( Tafsir ) and in collections of poetry ( Divan
Divan
). It was and is a very widely used form of script
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Islamic Culture
ISLAMIC CULTURE is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people. The early forms of Muslim culture were predominantly Arab . With the rapid expansion of the Islamic empires , Muslim culture has influenced and assimilated much from the Persian , Caucasian , Bangladeshi , Turkic , Mongol , Indian , Malay , Somali , Berber , Egyptian , Indonesian , and Moro cultures. Islamic culture generally includes all the practices which have developed around the religion of Islam , including Qur'anic ones such as prayer (salat ) and non-Qur'anic such as divisions of the world in Islam . It includes the Baul tradition of Bengal . There are variations in the application of Islamic beliefs in different cultures and traditions. CONTENTS * 1 Terminological use * 2 Language and literature * 2.1 Arabic * 2.2 Persian * 2.3 Turkish * 2.4 Indo-Islamic * 2.5 Modern * 3 Art * 3.1 Depiction of animate beings * 3.2 Calligraphy * 4 Architecture * 4.1 Elements of Islamic style * 4.2 Interpretation * 5 Theatre * 6 Dance * 7 Music * 8 Marriage * 9 Family Values * 10 Martial arts in Muslim Countries/Cultures * 11 Notes and references * 12 Further reading TERMINOLOGICAL USE _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES
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Islamic Architecture
ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day. What today is known as Islamic architecture was influenced by Persian , Roman , Byzantine , and all other lands which the Muslims conquered in the 7th and 8th centuries. Further east, it was also influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture as Islam spread to Southeast Asia . The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque , the Tomb , the Palace and the Fort . From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths , fountains and domestic architecture. There are different attitudes. Symbolic views of some scholars on Islamic architecture have consistently been criticized by historians for lacking historical evidence
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Architecture Of Azerbaijan
ARCHITECTURE OF AZERBAIJAN (Azerbaijani : Azərbaycan memarlığı) refers to the architecture development in Azerbaijan . Architecture in Azerbaijan typically combines elements of East and West. Many ancient architectural treasures such as the Maiden Tower and Palace of the Shirvanshahs in the walled city of Baku survive in modern Azerbaijan. Among other medieval architectural treasures reflecting the influence of several schools are the Shirvan shahs' palace in Baku, the Palace of Shaki Khans in the town of Shaki in north-central Azerbaijan, the Surakhany Temple on the Apsheron Peninsula , a number of bridges spanning the Aras River , and several mausoleums. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, little monumental architecture was created, but distinctive residences were built in Baku and elsewhere. Among the most recent architectural monuments, the Baku subways are noted for their lavish decor. The urban planning and architectural activities are regulated by the State Committee for City Building and Architecture of Azerbaijan Republic
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Indo-Islamic Architecture
INDO-ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE encompasses a wide range of styles from various backgrounds that helped shape the architecture of the Indian subcontinent from the advent of Islam in the Indian subcontinent around the 7th century. It has left influences on modern Indian , Pakistani and Bangladeshi architecture . Both secular and religious buildings are influenced by Indo- Islamic architecture which exhibit Indian , Islamic , Persian , Central Asian, Arabic and Ottoman Turkish influences, many of which themselves were influenced by Indian architecture through the spread of Indian culture before the advent of Islam. Indo- Islamic architecture can be categorized into three broad classes, consisting of monuments built by the Delhi Sultans , the Mughals and the regional emperors. CONTENTS* 1 Architecture of the Delhi Sultanate * 1.1 Qutb Complex * 2 Mughal Architecture * 2.1 Taj Mahal * 2.2 Red Fort * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ARCHITECTURE OF THE DELHI SULTANATEThe Delhi Sultanate is the name given to an Islamic Kingdom based mostly in North India around Delhi , ruled by five successive dynasties. The monuments built by these Sultans were the first examples of Indo-Islamic Architecture . The most important of these are in the Qutb Complex
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Moorish Architecture
MOORISH ARCHITECTURE is the architectural tradition that appeared in the Maghreb region and the Iberian peninsula after the Arab Islamic conquest. CONTENTS * 1 Architecture * 2 By country * 2.1 Spain * 2.1.1 Major monuments * 2.2 Portugal * 2.3 Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Gallery * 7 External links ARCHITECTURE _ Paderne Castle , Portugal THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION with: Article should describe the key features (dates, styles, innovations...) of each of the buildings mentioned, with suitable citations. You can help by adding to it . (December 2016)_Characteristic elements of Moorish architecture include muqarnas , horseshoe arches , voussoirs , domes, crenellated arches, lancet arches , ogee arches , courtyards, and decorative tile work known as zellij in Arabic or azulejo in Spanish
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Moroccan Architecture
MOROCCAN ARCHITECTURE dates from 110 BCE with the Berber's massive pisé (mud brick ) buildings. The architecture has been influenced by Islamization during the Idrisid dynasty , Moorish exiles from Spain, and also by France who occupied Morocco in 1912. Morocco is in Northern-Africa bordering the Mediterranean and the Atlantic . The country's diverse geography and the land’s long history marked by successive waves of settlers and military encroachments are all reflected in Morocco's architecture. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Influences * 2.1 Islam * 2.2 Moorish ( Spain 711-1492) * 2.3 French * 3 Types of house * 3.1 Riad * 3.2 Villa * 4 Architectural Features * 5 Elements of Classic Moroccan Interiors * 5.1 Woodwork * 5.2 Plaster * 5.3 Metalwork * 5.4 Ceramics * 6 Color Palettes * 7 See also * 8 References HISTORY Mud brick city of Ait Benhaddou , Morocco Morocco’s first independent state called the Berber kingdom of Mauretania was ruled by the Berbers clan. It was first documented during 110 BC. During the time of the Berbers, the country has been through several sieges by a number of invaders
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Mughal Architecture
The Muslim of the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
, Agra
Agra
, is the most recognized structure of Mughal architecture. * Badshahi Masjid , Lahore
Lahore
, Pakistan was the largest mosque in the world for 313 years, and presently is the second largest mosque in Southern Asia. * Jama Masjid, Delhi , the largest masjid in India. * Buland Darwaza was built by Akbar the Great to commemorate his victory. * Red Fort , Delhi . It was the residence of the Mughal dynasty. * Humayun\'s Tomb , Delhi. * Alamgiri Gate in Lahore
Lahore
Fort , Lahore
Lahore
, Pakistan . * _Diwan-e-Khas_ in Fatehpur Sikri , India Fatehpur Sikri was Akbar 's capital city. * Gardens of Babur in Kabul , Afghanistan. * Lalbagh Fort in Dhaka , Bangladesh. MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE is an architectural style developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in Medieval India
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Ottoman Architecture
OTTOMAN ARCHITECTURE is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries. The architecture of the empire developed from the earlier Seljuk architecture and was influenced by the Byzantine architecture , Armenian architecture , Iranian as well as Islamic Mamluk traditions after the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans. For almost 400 years Byzantine architectural artifacts such as the church of Hagia Sophia served as models for many of the Ottoman mosques . Overall, Ottoman architecture has been described as Byzantine architecture synthesized with architectural traditions of the Mediterranean and the Middle East. The Ottomans achieved the highest level architecture in their lands hence or since. They mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes, and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as articulated light and shadow. Islamic religious architecture which until then consisted of simple buildings with extensive decorations, was transformed by the Ottomans through a dynamic architectural vocabulary of vaults , domes, semi domes and columns
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Pakistani Architecture
PAKISTANI ARCHITECTURE refers to the various structures built during different time periods in what is now Pakistan . With the beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, for the first time in the area which encompasses today's Pakistan an advanced urban culture developed with large structural facilities, some of which survive to this day. This was followed by the Gandhara style of Buddhist architecture that borrowed elements from Ancient Greece . These remnants are visible in the Gandhara capital of Taxila . CONTENTS * 1 Indus Valley civilization * 2 Buddhist and Hindu architecture * 3 Mughal architecture * 4 British colonial architecture * 5 Post - independence architecture * 6 Gallery * 7 World Heritage Sites * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Main article: Indus Valley Civilization An example of the fusion of Greco-Buddhist styles: Representation of Buddha with Herakles Archaeologists excavated numerous ancient cities, among them Mohenjo Daro , ] and Kot Diji , which have a uniform, appropriate structure with broad roads as well as well thought out sanitary and drainage facilities. The majority of the discovered brick constructions are public buildings such as bath houses and workshops
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Tatar Mosque
TATAR MOSQUE — is the typical mosque architecture in Tatarstan and other Volga Tatar-populated areas of Russia . Occasionally found in other regions of Russia, modern Tatar religious architecture was developed in the late 18th century and gained popularity in the 19th century Idel-Ural
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Iranian Architecture
IRANIAN ARCHITECTURE or PERSIAN ARCHITECTURE (Persian :معماری ایرانی) is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia , the Caucasus and Central Asia . Its history dates back to at least 5,000 BCE with characteristic examples distributed over a vast area from Turkey and Iraq to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan , and from the Caucasus to Zanzibar . Persian buildings vary from peasant huts to tea houses and garden , pavilions to "some of the most majestic structures the world has ever seen". In addition to historic gates, palaces, and mosques, the rapid growth of cities such as the capital, Tehran ( Architecture of Tehran ) has brought about a wave of demolition and new construction. Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, from a variety of traditions and experience. Without sudden innovations, and despite the repeated trauma of invasions and cultural shocks, it has achieved "an individuality distinct from that of other Muslim countries". Its paramount virtues are: "a marked feeling for form and scale; structural inventiveness, especially in vault and dome construction; a genius for decoration with a freedom and success not rivaled in any other architecture"
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Somali Architecture
SOMALI ARCHITECTURE is the engineering and designing of multiple different construction types such as stone cities, castles , citadels , fortresses , mosques , temples , aqueducts , lighthouses , towers and tombs during the ancient, medieval and early modern periods in Somalia and other regions inhabited by Somalis, as well as the fusion of Somalo- Islamic architecture with Western designs in contemporary times. CONTENTS* 1 Ancient * 1.1 Walled settlements, temples and tombs * 1.2 Menhirs and dolmens * 1.3 Stelae * 2 Medieval * 2.1 Stone cities * 2.2 Castles and fortresses * 2.3 Citadels and city walls * 2.4 Mosques and shrines * 2.5 Towers and lighthouses * 3 Early modern * 4 1990s to present * 5 See also * 6 References ANCIENTWALLED SETTLEMENTS, TEMPLES AND TOMBS Ancient cairns in Qa’ableh . Some of the oldest known structures in the territory of modern-day Somalia consist of burial cairns (_taalo_). Although found throughout the country and the larger Horn of Africa region, northern Somalia in particular is home to numerous such archaeological structures, with many similar edifices found at Haylan , Qa’ableh , Qombo\'ul , El Ayo , Damo , Maydh and Heis among other towns
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Sudano-Sahelian Architecture
The term SUDANO-SAHELIAN ARCHITECTURE describes a range of similar indigenous architectural styles common to the African peoples of the Sahel and Sudanian grassland (geographical) regions of West Africa , south of the Sahara , but north of the fertile forest regions of the coast. This style is characterized by the use of mudbricks and adobe plaster, with large wooden-log support beams that jut out from the wall face for large buildings such as mosques or palaces. These beams also act as scaffolding for reworking, which is done at regular intervals, and involves the local community. The earliest examples of Sudano-Sahelian style probably come from Jenné-Jeno around 250 BC, where the first evidence of permanent mudbrick architecture in the region is found. CONTENTS * 1 Difference between Savannah and Sahelian styles * 2 Substyles * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SAVANNAH AND SAHELIAN STYLESThe earthen architecture in the Sahel zone region is noticeably different from the building style in the neighboring savannah . The "old Sudanese" cultivators of the savannah built their compounds out of several cone-roofed houses. This was primarily an urban building style, associated with centres of trade and wealth, characterised by cubic buildings with terraced roofs comprise the typical style
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Islamic Art
ISLAMIC ART encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations. It is thus a very difficult art to define because it covers many lands and various peoples over some 1,400 years; it is not art specifically of a religion, or of a time, or of a place, or of a single medium like painting. The huge field of Islamic architecture is the subject of a separate article, leaving fields as varied as calligraphy , painting , glass , pottery , and textile arts such as carpets and embroidery . Islamic art is not at all restricted to religious art, but includes all the art of the rich and varied cultures of Islamic societies as well. It frequently includes secular elements and elements that are frowned upon, if not forbidd