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Napoleonic Wars
Overall Coalition victory Congress of Vienna * Fall of the First French Empire * Exile of Napoleon I to St
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Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain Reino de España (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real " (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain
Spain
(dark green) – in Europe
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Enlightenment Spain
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
(in Spanish, Ilustración) came to Spain
Spain
in the eighteenth century with the new Bourbon dynasty , following the death of the last Habsburg monarch , Charles II , in 1700. "Like the Spanish Enlightenment, the Spanish Bourbon monarchs were imbued with Spain's Catholic identity." The period of reform and 'enlightened despotism ' under the Bourbons focused on centralizing and modernizing the Spanish government, and improvement of infrastructure, beginning with the rule of King Charles III and the work of his minister, José Moñino, count of Floridablanca
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Electorate Of Hanover
The ELECTORATE OF BRUNSWICK-LüNEBURG (German : Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), colloquially ELECTORATE OF HANOVER (Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply Kurhannover), was established in 1692 as the ninth Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire and formally approved in 1708. It was ruled by the House of Hanover
Hanover
, a cadet branch of the House of Welf , which then ruled and earlier had ruled a number of principalities, which had several times been partitioned among several heirs from the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg . After 1705, only two of these territories existed. One was the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel , which remained independent as the Duchy of Brunswick (new title adopted in 1815) until 1918. The other, the new Electorate, was based on the dynastic line of the Principality of Calenberg
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Province Of Hanover
The PROVINCE OF HANOVER (German : Provinz Hannover) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
and the Free State of Prussia
Prussia
from 1868 to 1946. During the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
, the Kingdom of Hanover had attempted to maintain a neutral position, along with some other member states of the German Confederation . After Hanover
Hanover
voted in favour of mobilising confederation troops against Prussia
Prussia
on 14 June 1866, Prussia
Prussia
saw this as a just cause for declaring war; the Kingdom of Hanover was soon dissolved and annexed by Prussia. The private wealth of the dethroned House of Hanover
Hanover
was then used by Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
to finance his continuing efforts against Ludwig II of Bavaria
Ludwig II of Bavaria

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Bourbon Restoration
The BOURBON RESTORATION was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon
Napoleon
in 1814 until the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830. The brothers of executed Louis XVI of France came to power and reigned in highly conservative fashion, and exiled supporters of the monarchy returned to France. They were nonetheless unable to reverse most of the changes made by the French Revolution
French Revolution
and Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
they were treated respectfully, but had to give up all the territorial gains made since 1789. King Louis XVI
Louis XVI
of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
had been overthrown and executed during the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1789–1799), which in turn was followed by Napoleon
Napoleon
as ruler of France
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Ottoman Empire
The OTTOMAN EMPIRE (/ˈɒtəmən/ ; Ottoman Turkish : دولت عليه عثمانیه‎, Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye; Modern Turkish : Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also known as the TURKISH EMPIRE, or OTTOMAN TURKEY, was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia in the vicinity of Bilecik and Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman . After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe
Europe
, and with the conquest of the Balkans
Balkans
, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire (known to the Ottomans as the Roman Empire) with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
by Mehmed the Conqueror
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Qajar Dynasty
The QAJAR DYNASTY ( listen (help ·info ); Persian : سلسله قاجار‎‎ Selsele-ye Qājār; also romanised as GHAJAR, KADJAR, QACHAR etc.; Azerbaijani : قاجارلر Qacarlar) was an Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin, specifically from the Qajar tribe , which ruled Persia
Persia
( Iran
Iran
) from 1785 to 1925. The state ruled by the dynasty was officially known as the SUBLIME STATE OF PERSIA (Persian : دولت علیّه ایران‎‎ Dowlat-e Aliyye-ye Irān). The Qajar family took full control of Iran
Iran
in 1794, deposing Lotf \'Ali Khan , the last of the Zand dynasty
Zand dynasty
, and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus
Caucasus

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Nassau (state)
The DUCHY OF NASSAU (German : Herzogtum Nassau), or simply NASSAU, was an independent state between 1806 and 1866, located in what is now the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
and Hesse
Hesse
. It was a member of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
and later of the German Confederation . Its ruling dynasty, now extinct, was the House of Nassau . The duchy was named for its historical core city, Nassau , although Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
, not Nassau, was its capital. In 1865, it had 465,636 inhabitants. After being occupied and annexed into the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866, it was succeeded by the Province of Hesse-Nassau
Hesse-Nassau
. The area today is a geographical and historical region, Nassau , and Nassau is also the name of the Nassau Nature Park
Nassau Nature Park
within the borders of the former duchy
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United Kingdom Of The Netherlands
The UNITED KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS (1815–1839) (Dutch : Het Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, French : Le Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) was the unofficial name for the KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS (Dutch : Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, French : Le Royaume des Belgiques ) during the period after it was first created from part of the First French Empire and before the new Kingdom of Belgium
Belgium
split off from it in 1830. This state, a large part of which still exists today as the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
, was made up of the former Dutch Republic (Republic of the Seven United Netherlands) to the north, the former Austrian Netherlands
Netherlands
to the south, and the former Prince-Bishopric of Liège . The House of Orange-Nassau
House of Orange-Nassau
came to be the monarchs of this new state
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Kingdom Of Hungary (1538–1867)
The KINGDOM OF HUNGARY between 1526 and 1867 was, while outside the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
, that became the Empire of Austria in 1804. After the Battle of Mohács of 1526, the country was ruled by two crowned kings (John I and Ferdinand I ). Initially the exact territory under Habsburg rule was disputed because both rulers claimed the whole kingdom. This unsettled period lasted until 1570 when John Sigismund Zápolya (John I) abdicated as King of Hungary
King of Hungary
in Emperor Maximilian II 's favor. In the early stages, the lands that were ruled by the Habsburg Hungarian kings were regarded both as "the Kingdom of Hungary" and "Royal Hungary". Royal Hungary
Hungary
was the symbol of the continuity of formal law after the Ottoman occupation, because it could preserve its legal traditions
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Kingdom Of The Two Sicilies
The KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES (Neapolitan : Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Sicilian : Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Italian : Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the largest of the states of Italy
Italy
before the Italian unification . It was formed as a union of the Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
and the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
, which collectively had long been called the "Two Sicilies" (Utraque Sicilia, literally "both Sicilies"). The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
lasted from 1815 until 1860, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
to form the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
in 1861
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St. Helena
SAINT HELENA (/ˌseɪnt həˈliːnə/ SAYNT-hə-LEE-nə ) is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) east of Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River
Cunene River
, which marks the border between Namibia
Namibia
and Angola
Angola
in southwestern Africa. It is part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha . Saint Helena
Saint Helena
measures about 16 by 8 kilometres (10 by 5 mi) and has a population of 4,534 (2016 census). It was named after Saint Helena
Saint Helena
of Constantinople . It is one of the most remote islands in the world, and was uninhabited when discovered by the Portuguese in 1502
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Nationalism
NATIONALISM is a multidimensional social construction reflected in the communal identification with one's nation . It is a political ideology oriented towards gaining and maintaining self-governance , or full sovereignty , over a territory of historical significance to the group (such as its homeland ). Nationalism
Nationalism
therefore holds that a nation should govern itself, free from unwanted outside interference, and is linked to the concept of self-determination . Nationalism
Nationalism
is further oriented towards developing and maintaining a national identity based on shared characteristics such as culture, language, race, religion, political goals or a belief in a common ancestry. Nationalism
Nationalism
therefore seeks to preserve the nation's culture. It often also involves a sense of pride in the nation's achievements, and is closely linked to the concept of patriotism
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French Guiana
FRENCH GUIANA (pronounced /ɡiːˈɑːnə/ or /ɡiːˈænə/ , French : Guyane française; French pronunciation: ​ ), officially called GUIANA (French : Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France
France
, located on the north Atlantic coast of South America
South America
in the Guyanas . It borders Brazil
Brazil
to the east and south, and