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Nanchang
Nanchang
Nanchang
(Chinese: 南昌) is the capital of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Province in southeastern China.[2] Nanchang
Nanchang
City (Mandarin: Nánchāng shì, Gan Dialect Chinese: lan31chɔŋ11 si32) is abbreviated as “Hong” or “Chang” and is also called “Eastern Edinburgh, Hero City of the World”. Nanchang
Nanchang
is the capital of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Province in the People's Republic of China, the third largest city in central China
China
and the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the largest city in Jiangxi. Nanchang
Nanchang
is located in the central part of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Province, with a history of more than 2,200 years. It was called “Yuzhang”, “Hongdu” and “Hongcheng”. It is located in the hinterland of Yuzhang Plain
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Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
(/juːˈɑːn/;[4] Chinese: 元朝; pinyin: Yuán Cháo), officially the Great Yuan[5] (Chinese: 大元; pinyin: Dà Yuán; Yehe Yuan Ulus[b]), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin
Borjigin
clan. It followed the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
and was succeeded by the Ming dynasty. Although the Mongols
Mongols
had ruled territories including modern-day North China
China
for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style,[6] and the conquest was not complete until 1279
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South China
South China
China
or Southern China
China
(simplified Chinese: 华南; traditional Chinese: 華南; pinyin: huá nán) is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China. Its precise meaning varies with context. In normal parlance and geography, it refers to the region south of the Qinling Huaihe Line.[1]The Qinling Huaihe Line
Qinling Huaihe Line
separates China
China
into its Northern and Southern regionsContents1 Definitions 2 Administrative divisions 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinitions[edit] Further information: Northern and southern China In the broadest sense, Southern China
China
can denote the entire portion of the country south of the line demarcated by the Qin Mountains
Qin Mountains
and Huai River
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Suzhounese
The Suzhou
Suzhou
dialect (simplified Chinese: 苏州话; traditional Chinese: 蘇州話; pinyin: Sūzhōu huà; Suzhounese: Sou-tsøʏ ghé-ghô 蘇州閒話), also known as Suzhounese, is the variety of Chinese traditionally spoken in the city of Suzhou
Suzhou
in Jiangsu Province, China. Suzhounese is a variety of Wu Chinese, and was traditionally considered the Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
prestige dialect. Considered one of the most flowing and elegant languages of China,[citation needed] it is rich in vowels and conservative in having many initials.Contents1 Distribution 2 History 3 Plural pronouns 4 Varieties 5 Phonology5.1 Initials 5.2 Finals 5.3 Tones6 Romanization 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksDistribution[edit] Suzhounese (or archaically Soochownese) is spoken within the city itself and the surrounding area, including migrants living in nearby Shanghai
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Cantonese
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese
Cantonese
was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p
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Southern Min
Southern Min, or Minnan (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in Taiwan
Taiwan
and in certain parts of China
China
including Fujian
Fujian
(especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.[4] The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. It is the largest Min Chinese
Min Chinese
branch and the most widely distributed Min Chinese
Min Chinese
subgroup. In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min
Southern Min
refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min
Southern Min
originating from Southern Fujian
Fujian
in Mainland China
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Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien
(/ˈhɒkiɛn, hɒˈkiɛn/;[a] from Chinese: 福建話; pinyin: Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-oē)[b] or Minnan Proper[citation needed] (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min dialect group spoken in the Fujian
Fujian
Province in Southeastern China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines
Philippines
and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese. Hokkien originated in southern Fujian, the Min-speaking province. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min. It is closely related to Teochew, though it has limited mutual intelligibility with it, whereas it is more distantly related to other variants such as Hainanese
Hainanese
and Leizhou dialect
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern MinAmoy TaiwaneseCreator Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest TalmageTime periodsince the 1830sParent systemsEgyptian hieroglyphsProto-SinaiticPhoenician alphabetGreek alphabetLatin alphabetPe̍h-ōe-jīChild systemsTLPA Taiwanese Romanization SystemThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
(pronounced [peʔ˩ ue˩ dzi˨] ( listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
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Taiwanese Romanization System
The Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
(Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien
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Qin Dynasty
Huang-LaoHuangdi Sijing HuainanziEarly figuresGuan Zhong Zichan Deng Xi Li Kui Wu QiFounding figuresShen Buhai Duke Xiao of Qin Shang Yang Shen Dao Zhang Yi Xun Kuang Han Fei Li Si Qin Shi HuangHan figuresJia Yi Liu An Emperor Wen of Han Emperor Wu of Han Chao Cuo Gongsun Hong Zhang Tang Huan Tan Wang Fu Zhuge LiangLater figuresEmperor Wen of Sui Du You Wang Anshi Li Shanchang Zhang Juzheng Xu Guangqiv t eHistory of ChinaANCIENTNeolithic c. 8500 – c. 2070 BC Xia dynasty
Xia dynasty
c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
c. 1600 – c. 1046 BC Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
c
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Baiyue
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous non-Chinese peoples who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze
Yangtze
basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.[1] Meacham (1996:93) notes that, during the Zhou and Han dynasties, the Yue lived in a vast territory from Jiangsu
Jiangsu
to Yunnan,[2] while Barlow (1997:2) indicates that the Luoyue occupied the southwest Guangxi
Guangxi
and north Vietnam.[3] The Han shu (漢書) describes the lands of Yue as stretching from the regions of Kuaiji(會稽) to Jiaozhi
Jiaozhi
( 交趾).[4] In the Warring States period, the word "Yue" referred to the State of Yue
State of Yue
in Zhejiang
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Han Dynasty
Coordinates: 34°09′21″N 108°56′47″E / 34.15583°N 108.94639°E / 34.15583; 108.94639Han dynasty漢朝206 BC–220 ADA map of the Western Han
Western Han
Dynasty in 2 AD: 1) the territory shaded in dark blue represents the principalities and centrally-administered commanderies of the Han Empire; 2) the light blue area shows the extent of the Tarim Basin
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Emperor Gaozu Of Han
Emperor Gaozu of Han
Emperor Gaozu of Han
(Chinese: 汉高祖; 256 BC – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu
Liu
Bang (刘邦), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BC. He was one of the few dynasty founders in Chinese history who rose from humble origins as a member of the peasant class.[6] Before coming to power, Liu
Liu
Bang initially served as a minor patrol officer for the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
in his home town Pei County, within the conquered state of Chu. With the First Emperor's death and the Qin Empire's subsequent political chaos, Liu
Liu
Bang renounced his government position and became an anti-Qin rebel leader
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Sui Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty (/swiː/;[3] Chinese: 隋朝; pinyin: Suí cháo) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China
China
of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties
and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese
Han Chinese
in the entirety of China
China
proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities (the Five Barbarians) within its territory
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