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Namokar Mantra
ṆAMōKāRA MANTRA is the most significant mantra in Jainism
Jainism
. This is the first prayer recited by the Jains while meditating . The mantra is also variously referred to as the Pancha Namaskāra Mantra, Navakāra Mantra
Mantra
or Namaskāra Mantra. While reciting this mantra, the devotee bows with respect to the Panch Parameshti (the Supreme Five): * Arihant — Those who have destroyed the four inimical karmas * Siddha
Siddha
— The liberated souls * Acharyas — The spiritual leaders or Preceptors * Upadhayaya — Preceptor of less advanced ascetics * Sādhu — The monks or sages in the worldThere is no mention of any particular names of the gods or any specific person. The prayer is done towards the guṇa (the good qualities) of the gods, teachers and the saints
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Arihant (Jainism)
ARIHANT (Hindi: अरिहंत , Jain Prakrit: अरिहन्त , Pali: अर्हत् , Arihanta) may refer to: * Arihant (Jainism) , in Jainism, a siddha who has not yet died * Arhat
Arhat
, in Buddhism, a person who has attained nirvaana, the perfected one* Arihant class submarine , a class
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Prakrit
A PRAKRIT ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: प्राकृत prākṛta, Shauraseni : pāuda, Magadhi Prakrit : pāua) is any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages . The Ardhamagadhi ("half-Magadhi ") Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism
Jainism
, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit
Prakrit
grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it. For this reason, courses teaching "Prakrit" are often regarded as teaching Ardhamagadhi
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Diwali
DIWALI or DEEPAVALI is the Hindu
Hindu
festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere)
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Dilwara Temples
The DILWARA TEMPLES (Gujarati : અાબુના દેલવાડા) of India
India
are located about 2½ kilometres from Mount Abu , Rajasthan\'s only hill station. These Jain
Jain
temples were built by Vimal Shah and designed by Vastapul-Tejpal, Jain
Jain
laymen , between the 11th and 13th centuries AD and are famous for their use of marble and intricate marble carvings. The five marble temples of Dilwara
Dilwara
are a sacred pilgrimage place of the Jains. Some consider them to be one of the most beautiful Jain
Jain
pilgrimage sites in the world. The temples have an opulent entranceway, the simplicity in architecture reflecting Jain
Jain
values like honesty and frugality. The temples are in the midst of a range of forested hills. A high wall shrouds the temple complex
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Yashovijaya
YASHOVIJAYA ( IAST
IAST
: Yaśovijaya, 1624–1688), a seventeenth-century Jain philosopher-monk , was a notable Indian philosopher and logician. He was a thinker, prolific writer and commentator who had a strong and lasting influence on Jainism
Jainism
. He was a disciple of Muni Nayavijaya in the lineage of Jain monk Hiravijaya (belonging to the Tapa Gaccha tradition of Svetambara Jains) who influenced the Mughal Emperor Akbar to give up eating meat . He is also known as YASHOVIJAYJI with honorifics like MAHOPADHYAYA or UPADHYAYA or GANI
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Digambara
DIGAMBARA (/dɪˈɡʌmbərə/ ; "sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism
Jainism
, the other being Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
(white-clad). The word Digambara
Digambara
( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
) is a combination of two words: dig (directions) and ambara (sky), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. Digambara
Digambara
monks do not wear any clothes. The monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers (for clearing the place before walking or sitting), kamandalu (a water container made of wood), and shastra (scripture). One of the most important scholar-monks of Digambara tradition was Kundakunda . He authored Prakrit
Prakrit
texts such as the Samayasāra and the Pravacanasāra
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Śvētāmbara
The ŚVēTāMBARA (/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/ ; Sanskrit : श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism
Jainism
, the other being the Digambara
Digambara
. Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics ' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara
Digambara
"sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity. Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha . Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara , Māllīnātha , was a woman
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Siddhasena
SIDDHASēNA DIVāKARA (Magadhi Prakrit
Prakrit
: सिद्दसेन दिवाकर) was an Digambara
Digambara
monk in the fifth century CE who wrote works on Jain philosophy and epistemology. He was like the illuminating lamp of the Jain order and therefore came to be known as Divākara "Lamp-Maker". He is credited with the authorship of many books, most of which are not available. Sanmatitarka (‘The Logic of the True Doctrine’) is the first major Jain work on logic written in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Thought * 3 Works * 4 Notes * 5 References LIFE Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara is said to have lived from 500 CE to 610 CE. He was a Brahmin by birth and a scholar. He was initiated by Acharya Vruddhavadi
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Kundakunda
ACHARYA KUNDAKUNDA is a revered Digambara
Digambara
Jain monk and philosopher. He authored many Jain texts such as: Samayasara , Niyamasara , Pancastikayasara , Pravachanasara , Atthapahuda and Barasanuvekkha. He occupies the highest place in the tradition of the Jain acharyas . Modern scholarship has found it difficult to locate him chronologically, with a possible low date in the 2nd-3rd centuries CE and a late date in 8th century. CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Biography * 3 Thought * 4 Works * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links NAMESHis proper name was Padmanandin, he is popularly referred to as Kundakunda
Kundakunda
possibly because the modern village of Kondakunde in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
might represent his native home. A.N
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History Of Jainism
HISTORY OF JAINISM concerns a religion founded in Ancient India
Ancient India
. Jains trace their history through twenty-four tirthankara and revere Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
as the first tirthankara (in the present time-cycle). The last two tirthankara, the 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
(c. 872 – c. 772 BCE) and the 24th tirthankara Mahavira (c. 599 – c. 527 BCE) are considered historical figures, though many historians date them both about a century later because the Mahavira is widely accepted as a contemporary of the Buddha
Buddha
, and significantly more historical evidence is available for the Buddha. According to Jain texts, the 22nd Tirthankara arsth-Nami lived about 85,000 years ago and was the cousin of Hindu god Krishna
Krishna
. Jains consider their religion to be eternal
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Samantabhadra (Jain Monk)
SAMANTABHADRA was a Digambara
Digambara
acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada . The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami but before Pujyapada . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Thought * 3 Works * 4 Praise * 5 References * 6 Sources LIFESamantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE. He was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
. He was a poet, logician, eulogist and an accomplished linguist. He is credited with spreading Jainism
Jainism
in southern India. Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka (the condition of insatiable hunger)
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Haribhadra
HARIBHADRA SURI was a Svetambara mendicant Jain leader and author. There are multiple contradictory dates assigned to his birth. According to tradition, he lived c. 459–529 CE. However, in 1919, a Jain monk named Jinavijayi pointed out that given his familiarity with Dharmakirti , a more likely choice would be sometime after 650. In his writings, Haribhadra
Haribhadra
identifies himself as a student of Jinabhadra and Jinadatta of the Vidyadhara Kula. There are several, somewhat contradictory, accounts of his life. He wrote several books on Yoga, such as the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya and on comparative religion, outlining and analyzing the theories of Hindus, Buddhists and Jains
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Jain Schools And Branches
Jainism
Jainism
is an Indian religion which is traditionally believed to be propagated by twenty-four spiritual teachers known as tirthankara. Broadly, Jainism
Jainism
is divided into two major sects , Digambara
Digambara
and Svetambara . These are further divided into different sub-sects and traditions. While there are differences in practices, the core philosophy and main principles of each sect is same
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Samvatsari
SAṃVATSARī (INTERNATIONAL FORGIVENESS DAY) is the last day of Paryushana
Paryushana
—the eight days festival of Switember Jain and ten days festival of Digamber Jain . It is the holiest day of the Jain calendar . Many Jains observe a complete fast on this day. The whole day is spent in prayers and contemplation. A yearly, elaborate penitential retreat called saṃvatsarī pratikramana is performed on this day. After the pratikramana Jains seek forgiveness from all the creatures of the world whom they may have harmed knowingly or unknowingly by uttering the phrase— Micchami Dukkadam , "Khamau Sa" , or "Khamat Khamna". As a matter of ritual, they personally greet their friends and relatives Micchami Dukkadam . No private quarrel or dispute may be carried beyond Saṃvatsarī and messages , telephone calls are made to the outstation friends and relatives asking their forgiveness. REFERENCES * ^ Shah, Nathubhai (1998)
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Tirtha (Jainism)
In Jainism
Jainism
, a TīRTHA (Sanskrit : तीर्थ "ford , a shallow part of a body of water that may be easily crossed") is used to refer both to pilgrimage sites as well as to the four sections of the sangha . A tirtha provides the inspiration to enable one to cross over from worldly engagement to the side of moksha . Jain tirthas are located throughout India. Often a tirtha has a number of temples as well as residences (dharmashala) for the pilgrims and wandering monks and scholars
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