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NOR Gate
The N OR gate
OR gate
is a digital logic gate that implements logical NOR - it behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results if both the inputs to the gate are LOW (0); if one or both input is HIGH (1), a LOW output (0) results. NOR is the result of the negation of the OR operator. It can also be seen as an AND gate
AND gate
with all the inputs inverted. NOR is a functionally complete operation—NOR gates can be combined to generate any other logical function. it shares this property with the NAND gate. By contrast, the OR operator is monotonic as it can only change LOW to HIGH but not vice versa. In most, but not all, circuit implementations, the negation comes for free—including CMOS
CMOS
and TTL. In such logic families, OR is the more complicated operation; it may use a NOR followed by a NOT
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Statement (logic)
In logic, the term statement is variously understood to mean either:(a) a meaningful declarative sentence that is true or false, or (b) the assertion that is made by a true or false declarative sentence.In the latter case, a statement is distinct from a sentence in that a sentence is only one formulation of a statement, whereas there may be many other formulations expressing the same statement.Contents1 Overview 2 As an abstract entity 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesOverview[edit] Philosopher of language, Peter Strawson advocated the use of the term "statement" in sense (b) in preference to proposition. Strawson used the term "Statement" to make the point that two declarative sentences can make the same statement if they say the same thing in different ways
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MOSFET
The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon. It has an insulated gate, whose voltage determines the conductivity of the device. This ability to change conductivity with the amount of applied voltage can be used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. A metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor or MISFET is a term almost synonymous with MOSFET. Another synonym is IGFET for insulated-gate field-effect transistor. The basic principle of the field-effect transistor was first patented by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld
Julius Edgar Lilienfeld
in 1925.[1] The main advantage of a MOSFET
MOSFET
is that it requires almost no input current to control the load current, when compared with bipolar transistors
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Logic Families
In computer engineering, a logic family may refer to one of two related concepts. A logic family of monolithic digital integrated circuit devices is a group of electronic logic gates constructed using one of several different designs, usually with compatible logic levels and power supply characteristics within a family. Many logic families were produced as individual components, each containing one or a few related basic logical functions, which could be used as "building-blocks" to create systems or as so-called "glue" to interconnect more complex integrated circuits. A "logic family" may also refer to a set of techniques used to implement logic within VLSI integrated circuits such as central processors, memories, or other complex functions. Some such logic families use static techniques to minimize design complexity
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Small-outline Integrated Circuit
A Small Outline Integrated Circuit
Small Outline Integrated Circuit
(SOIC) is a surface-mounted integrated circuit (IC) package which occupies an area about 30 to 50 % less than an equivalent dual in-line package (DIP), with a typical thickness that is 70 % less. They are generally available in the same pin-outs as their counterpart DIP ICs. The convention for naming the package is SOIC or SO followed by the number of pins
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Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.[4] Headquartered in Dallas, Texas, United States, TI is one of the top ten semiconductor companies worldwide, based on sales volume.[5] Texas Instruments's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors, which accounts for more than 85% of their revenue.[6] TI also produces TI digital light processing (DLP) technology and education technology[6] products including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors
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Philips
Koninklijke Philips
Philips
N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch technology company headquartered in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
currently focused in the area of healthcare. It was founded in Eindhoven
Eindhoven
in 1891, by Gerard Philips
Philips
and his father Frederik. It was once one of the largest electronic conglomerates in the world and currently employs around 105,000 people across more than 60 countries.[1] Philips
Philips
is organized into three main divisions: Philips
Philips
Consumer Lifestyle (formerly Philips
Philips
Consumer Electronics and Philips
Philips
Domestic Appliances and Personal Care), Philips
Philips
Healthcare
Healthcare
(formerly Philips Medical Systems) and Philips
Philips
Lighting
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Fairchild Semiconductor
Fairchild Semiconductor
Semiconductor
International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California. Founded in 1957 as a division of Fairchild Camera and Instrument, it became a pioneer in the manufacturing of transistors and of integrated circuits. Schlumberger
Schlumberger
bought the firm in 1979 and sold it to National Semiconductor
Semiconductor
in 1987; Fairchild was spun off as an independent company again in 1997. The company has locations in the United States
United States
at San Jose, California; South Portland, Maine; West Jordan, Utah; Mountaintop, Pennsylvania. Outside the U.S
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Dual In-line Package
In microelectronics, a dual in-line package (DIP or DIL[1]), or dual in-line pin package (DIPP)[2] is an electronic component package with a rectangular housing and two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins. The package may be through-hole mounted to a printed circuit board (PCB) or inserted in a socket. The dual-inline format was invented by Don Forbes, Rex Rice and Bryant Rogers at Fairchild R&D in 1964,[3] when the restricted number of leads available on circular transistor-style packages became a limitation in the use of integrated circuits.[4] Increasingly complex circuits required more signal and power supply leads (as observed in Rent's rule); eventually microprocessors and similar complex devices required more leads than could be put on a DIP package, leading to development of higher-density packages
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Integrated Circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics
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Full Adder
An adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. In many computers and other kinds of processors adders are used in the arithmetic logic units or ALU. They are also utilized in other parts of the processor, where they are used to calculate addresses, table indices, increment and decrement operators, and similar operations. Although adders can be constructed for many number representations, such as binary-coded decimal or excess-3, the most common adders operate on binary numbers. In cases where two's complement or ones' complement is being used to represent negative numbers, it is trivial to modify an adder into an adder–subtractor
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DIN
Deutsches Institut für Normung
Deutsches Institut für Normung
e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body. DIN is a German Registered Association (e.V.) headquartered in Berlin. There are currently around thirty thousand DIN Standards, covering nearly every field of technology.Contents1 History 2 DIN standard designation 3 Examples of DIN standards 4 See also 5 External linksHistory[edit] Founded in 1917 as the Normenausschuß der deutschen Industrie (NADI, "Standardisation Committee of German Industry"), the NADI was renamed Deutscher Normenausschuß (DNA, "German Standardisation Committee") in 1926 to reflect that the organization now dealt with standardization issues in many fields; viz., not just for industrial products
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Domino Logic
Domino logic is a CMOS-based evolution of the dynamic logic techniques based on either PMOS or NMOS transistors. It allows a rail-to-rail logic swing. It was developed to speed up circuits.Contents1 Terminology 2 Dynamic logic drawbacks 3 Logic features 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTerminology[edit] The term derives from the fact that in domino logic (cascade structure consisting of several stages), each stage ripples the next stage for evaluation, similar to a Domino falling one after the other. Dynamic logic drawbacks[edit] In dynamic logic, a problem arises when cascading one gate to the next. The precharge "1" state of the first gate may cause the second gate to discharge prematurely, before the first gate has reached its correct state
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Transistor–transistor Logic
Transistor–transistor logic
Transistor–transistor logic
(TTL) is a class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors. Its name signifies that transistors perform both the logic function (the first "transistor") and the amplifying function (the second "transistor"); it is the same naming convention used in resistor–transistor logic (RTL) and diode–transistor logic (DTL). TTL integrated circuits (ICs) were widely used in applications such as computers, industrial controls, test equipment and instrumentation, consumer electronics, and synthesizers. Sometimes TTL-compatible logic levels are not associated directly with TTL integrated circuits, for example as a label on the inputs and outputs of electronic instruments.[1] After their introduction in integrated circuit form in 1963 by Sylvania, TTL integrated circuits were manufactured by several semiconductor companies
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CMOS
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS /ˈsiːmɒs/, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits. CMOS
CMOS
technology is used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS
CMOS
technology is also used for several analog circuits such as image sensors ( CMOS
CMOS
sensor), data converters, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication
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Pull-up Resistor
In electronic logic circuits, a pull-up resistor is a resistor used to ensure a known state for a signal. It is typically used in combination with components such as switches and transistors, which physically interrupt the connection of subsequent components to ground. The pull-up resistor then ensures a well-defined voltage (i.e. VCC) across the latter during interruption. An open switch is not equivalent to a component with infinite impedance, since in the former case, the stationary voltage in any loop in which it is involved can no longer be determined by Kirchhoff's laws
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