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NMR
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to VHF
VHF
and UHF
UHF
television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus. Many scientific techniques exploit NMR phenomena to study molecular physics, crystals, and non-crystalline materials through nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
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Stern–Gerlach Experiment
The Stern–Gerlach experiment
Stern–Gerlach experiment
demonstrated that the spatial orientation of angular momentum is quantized. It demonstrated that atomic-scale systems have intrinsically quantum properties. In the original experiment, silver atoms were sent through a spatially varying magnetic field, which deflected them before they struck a detector screen, such as a glass slide. If the particles have a magnetic moment, the magnetic field gradient deflects them from a straight path. The screen reveals discrete points of accumulation rather than a continuous distribution[1], owing to the quantum nature of spin
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Spectral Resolution
The spectral resolution of a spectrograph, or, more generally, of a frequency spectrum, is a measure of its ability to resolve features in the electromagnetic spectrum. It is usually denoted by Δ λ displaystyle Delta lambda , and is closely related to the resolving power of the spectrograph, defined as R = λ Δ λ displaystyle R= lambda over Delta lambda , where Δ λ displaystyle Delta lambda is the smallest difference in wavelengths that can be distinguished at a wavelength of λ displaystyle lambda . For example, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph
Spectrograph
(STIS) can distinguish features 0.17 nm apart at a wavelength of 1000 nm, giving it a resolution of 0.17 nm and a resolving power of about 5,900
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Boron-11
Boron
Boron
(5B) naturally occurs as isotopes 10and 11B, the latter of which makes up about 80% of natural boron. There are 14 radioisotopes that have been discovered, with mass numbers from 6 to 21, all with short half-lives, the longest being that of 8B, with a half-life of only 770 milliseconds (ms) and 12B with a half-life of 20.2 ms
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Phosphorus-31
Although phosphorus (15P) has 23 isotopes from 24P to 46P, only one of these isotopes is stable 31P; as such, it is considered a monoisotopic element. The longest-lived radioactive isotopes are 33P with a half-life of 25.34 days and 32P with a half-life of 14.263 days. All others have lived under 2.5 minutes, most under a second. The least stable is 25P with a half-life shorter than 30 nanoseconds—the half-life of 24P is unknown.Contents1 Radioactive isotopes1.1 Phosphorus-32 1.2 Phosphorus-332 List of isotopes2.1 Notes3 References 4 External linksRadioactive isotopes[edit] Phosphorus-32[edit] 32P, a beta-emitter (1.71 MeV) with a half-life of 14.3 days, is used routinely in life-science laboratories, primarily to produce radiolabeled DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
probe, e.g. for use in Northern blots or Southern blots
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Chlorine-35
Chlorine
Chlorine
(17Cl) has 24 isotopes with mass numbers ranging from 28Cl to 51Cl and 2 isomers (34mCl and 38mCl). There are two principal stable isotopes, 35Cl (75.78%) and 37Cl (24.22%), giving chlorine a standard atomic weight of 35.45. The longest-lived radioactive isotope is 36Cl, which has a half-life of 301,000 years. All other isotopes have half-lives under 1 hour, many less than one second. The shortest-lived are 29Cl and 30Cl, with half-lives less than 20 and 30 nanoseconds, respectively—the half-life of 28Cl is unknown.Contents1 Chlorine-36 (36Cl) 2 List of isotopes2.1 Notes3 References 4 External links Chlorine-36 (36Cl)[edit] Main article: Chlorine-36 Trace amounts of radioactive 36Cl exist in the environment, in a ratio of about 7×10−13 to 1 with stable isotopes. 36Cl is produced in the atmosphere by spallation of 36Ar by interactions with cosmic ray protons
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Cadmium-113
Naturally occurring cadmium (48Cd) is composed of 8 isotopes. For two of them, natural radioactivity was observed, and three others are predicted to be radioactive but their decays were never observed, due to extremely long half-life times. The two natural radioactive isotopes are 113Cd (beta decay, half-life is 8.04 × 1015 years) and 116Cd (two-neutrino double beta decay, half-life is 2.8 × 1019 years). The other three are 106Cd, 108Cd (double electron capture), and 114Cd (double beta decay); only lower limits on their half-life times have been set. At least three isotopes—110Cd, 111Cd, and 112Cd—are absolutely stable (except, theoretically, to spontaneous fission). Among the isotopes absent in the natural cadmium, the most long-lived are 109Cd with a half-life of 462.6 days, and 115Cd with a half-life of 53.46 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 2.5 hours and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 5 minutes
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Carbon-13
Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing six protons and seven neutrons. As one of the environmental isotopes, it makes up about 1.1% of all natural carbon on Earth. Contents1 Detection by mass spectrometry 2 Uses in science 3 See also 4 NotesDetection by mass spectrometry[edit] A mass spectrum of an organic compound will usually contain a small peak of one mass unit greater than the apparent molecular ion peak (M) of the whole molecule. This is known as the M+1 peak and comes from the handful of molecules that contain a 13C atom in place of a 12C. A molecule containing one carbon atom will be expected to have an M+1 peak of approximately 1.1% of the size of the M peak, as 1.1% of the molecules will have a 13C rather than a 12C
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Xenon-129
Naturally occurring xenon (54Xe) is made of eight stable isotopes and one very long-lived isotope. (124Xe, 126Xe, and 134Xe are predicted to undergo double beta decay,[citation needed] but this has never been observed in these isotopes, so they are considered to be stable.)[3][4][not in citation given] Xenon
Xenon
has the second-highest number of stable isotopes. Only tin, with 10 stable isotopes, has more.[5] Beyond these stable forms, over 30 unstable isotopes and isomers have been studied, the longest-lived of which is 136Xe, which undergoes double beta decay with a half-life of 2.165 ± 0.016(stat) ± 0.059(sys) ×1021 years[1] with the next longest lived being 127Xe with a half-life of 36.345 days. Of known isomers, the longest-lived is 131mXe with a half-life of 11.934 days
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Nuclide
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.[1] The word nuclide was proposed[2] by Truman P. Kohman[3] in 1947. Kohman originally suggested nuclide as referring to a "species of atom characterized by the constitution of its nucleus" defined by containing a certain number of neutrons and protons
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Platinum-195
Natural platinum (78Pt) occurs in six stable isotopes (192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, 198Pt) and one very long-lived (half-life 6.50×1011 years) radioisotope (190Pt). There are also 31 known artificial radioisotopes, the longest-lived of which is 193Pt with a half-life of 50 years
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Angular Momentum
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum. It is an important quantity in physics because it is a conserved quantity – the total angular momentum of a system remains constant unless acted on by an external torque. In three dimensions, the angular momentum for a point particle is a pseudovector r×p, the cross product of the particle's position vector r (relative to some origin) and its momentum vector p = mv. This definition can be applied to each point in continua like solids or fluids, or physical fields. Unlike momentum, angular momentum does depend on where the origin is chosen, since the particle's position is measured from it
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Neutrons
5000000000000000000♠0 e 3021799999999999999♠(−2±8)×10−22 e (experimental limits)[4]Electric dipole moment < 6974290000000000000♠2.9×10−26 e⋅cm (experimental upper limit)Electric polarizability 6997116000000000000♠1.16(15)×10−3 fm3Magnetic moment 3026033763500000000♠−0.96623650(23)×10−26 J·T−1[3] 3002895812437000000♠−1.04187563(25)×10−3 μB[3] 2999808695726999999♠−1.91304273(45) μN[3]Magnetic polarizability 6996370000000000000♠3.7(20)×10−4 fm3Spin 1/2Isospin −1/2Parity +1Condensed I(JP) = 1/2(1/2+)The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol n or n0, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms
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Gradient
In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative. While a derivative can be defined on functions of a single variable, for functions of several variables, the gradient takes its place. The gradient is a vector-valued function, as opposed to a derivative, which is scalar-valued. Like the derivative, the gradient represents the slope of the tangent of the graph of the function. More precisely, the gradient points in the direction of the greatest rate of increase of the function, and its magnitude is the slope of the graph in that direction. The components of the gradient in coordinates are the coefficients of the variables in the equation of the tangent space to the graph
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Perpendicular
In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees). The property extends to other related geometric objects. A line is said to be perpendicular to another line if the two lines intersect at a right angle.[2] Explicitly, a first line is perpendicular to a second line if (1) the two lines meet; and (2) at the point of intersection the straight angle on one side of the first line is cut by the second line into two congruent angles. Perpendicularity can be shown to be symmetric, meaning if a first line is perpendicular to a second line, then the second line is also perpendicular to the first. For this reason, we may speak of two lines as being perpendicular (to each other) without specifying an order. Perpendicularity easily extends to segments and rays
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Zeeman Effect
The Zeeman effect
Zeeman effect
(/ˈzeɪmən/; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈzeːmɑn]), named after the Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman, is the effect of splitting a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is analogous to the Stark effect, the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of an electric field. Also similar to the Stark effect, transitions between different components have, in general, different intensities, with some being entirely forbidden (in the dipole approximation), as governed by the selection rules. Since the distance between the Zeeman sub-levels is a function of magnetic field strength, this effect can be used to measure magnetic field strength, e.g. that of the Sun
Sun
and other stars or in laboratory plasmas
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