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NMR
NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation . This energy is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to VHF
VHF
and UHF
UHF
television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus . Many scientific techniques exploit NMR phenomena to study molecular physics , crystals , and non-crystalline materials through nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy . NMR is also routinely used in advanced medical imaging techniques, such as in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY, most commonly known as NMR SPECTROSCOPY, is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei . This type of spectroscopy determines the physical and chemical properties of atoms or the molecules in which they are contained. It relies on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and can provide detailed information about the structure, dynamics, reaction state, and chemical environment of molecules. The intramolecular magnetic field around an atom in a molecule changes the resonance frequency, thus giving access to details of the electronic structure of a molecule and its individual functional groups. Most frequently, NMR spectroscopy is used by chemists and biochemists to investigate the properties of organic molecules , although it is applicable to any kind of sample that contains nuclei possessing spin
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NMR (other)
NMR may refer to: APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE * Nuclear magnetic resonance * Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy * Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance
Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance
*
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Physical Phenomenon
A PHENOMENON (Greek :φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural PHENOMENA) is any thing which manifests itself. Phenomena are often, but not always, understood as "things that appear" or "experiences " for a sentient being, or in principle may be so. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant , who contrasted it with the noumenon . In contrast to a phenomenon, a noumenon can not be directly observed. Kant was heavily influenced by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in this part of his philosophy, in which phenomenon and noumenon serve as interrelated technical terms. Far predating this, the ancient Greek Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus
Sextus Empiricus
also used phenomenon and noumenon as interrelated technical terms. Cloud chamber phenomena
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Atomic Nucleus
The ATOMIC NUCLEUS is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom , discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment . After the discovery of the neutron in 1932, models for a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons were quickly developed by Dmitri Ivanenko and Werner Heisenberg . Almost all of the mass of an atom is located in the nucleus, with a very small contribution from the electron cloud . Protons and neutrons are bound together to form a nucleus by the nuclear force
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Magnetic Field
A MAGNETIC FIELD is the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials . The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a _direction_ and a _magnitude_ (or strength); as such it is represented by a vector field . The term is used for two distinct but closely related fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (symbol: A⋅m−1 or A/m) in the SI . B is measured in teslas (symbol: T) and newtons per meter per ampere (symbol: N⋅m−1⋅A−1 or N/(m⋅A)) in the SI . B is most commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges. Magnetic fields can be produced by moving electric charges and the intrinsic magnetic moments of elementary particles associated with a fundamental quantum property , their spin
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Electromagnetic Radiation
In physics , ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (EM RADIATION or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons ) of the electromagnetic field , propagating (radiating) through space carrying electromagnetic radiant energy . It includes radio waves , microwaves , infrared , (visible) light , ultraviolet , X- , and gamma radiation. Classically , electromagnetic radiation consists of ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, which are synchronized oscillations of electric and magnetic fields that propagate at the speed of light through a vacuum . The oscillations of the two fields are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation, forming a transverse wave . The wavefront of electromagnetic waves emitted from a point source (such as a lightbulb) is a sphere . The position of an electromagnetic wave within the electromagnetic spectrum could be characterized by either its frequency of oscillation or its wavelength
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Resonance
In physics , RESONANCE is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies . Frequencies at which the response amplitude is a relative maximum are known as the system's RESONANT FREQUENCIES or RESONANCE FREQUENCIES. At resonant frequencies, small periodic driving forces have the ability to produce large amplitude oscillations, due to the storage of vibrational energy
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Isotope
ISOTOPES are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number . All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom . The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table . The number of protons within the atom\'s nucleus is called atomic number and is equal to the number of electrons in the neutral (non-ionized) atom. Each atomic number identifies a specific element, but not the isotope; an atom of a given element may have a wide range in its number of neutrons . The number of nucleons (both protons and neutrons) in the nucleus is the atom's mass number , and each isotope of a given element has a different mass number
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VHF
VERY HIGH FREQUENCY (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves ) from 30 to 300 Megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meters. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted high frequency (HF), and the next higher frequencies are known as ultra high frequency (UHF). Common uses for VHF are FM radio broadcasting, television broadcasting, two way land mobile radio systems (emergency, business, private use and military), long range data communication up to several tens of kilometres with radio modems , amateur radio , and marine communications . Air traffic control communications and air navigation systems (e.g. VOR "> "Rabbit-ears" VHF television antenna (the small loop is a separate UHF
UHF
antenna)
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UHF
ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY (UHF) is the ITU
ITU
designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the DECIMETRE BAND as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter . Radio
Radio
waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the SHF (super-high frequency ) or microwave frequency range. Lower frequency signals fall into the VHF
VHF
(very high frequency ) or lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate mainly by line of sight ; they are blocked by hills and large buildings although the transmission through building walls is strong enough for indoor reception. They are used for television broadcasting , cell phones , satellite communication including GPS
GPS
, personal radio services including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth
Bluetooth
, walkie-talkies , cordless phones , and numerous other applications
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Television Channel Frequencies
The following tables show the frequencies assigned to broadcast television channels in various regions of the world, along with the ITU
ITU
letter designator for the system used. The frequencies shown are for the analogue video and audio carriers . The channel itself occupies several megahertz of bandwidth . For example, North American channel 2 occupies the spectrum from 54 to 60 MHz. See Broadcast television systems for a table of signal characteristics, including bandwidth, by ITU
ITU
letter designator. A plan showing frequency ranges for each television channel used on VHF
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Quantum Mechanical
QUANTUM MECHANICS (QM; also known as QUANTUM PHYSICS or QUANTUM THEORY), including quantum field theory , is a branch of physics which is the fundamental theory of nature at the small scales and energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles . Classical physics (the physics existing before quantum mechanics) derives from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid only at large (macroscopic ) scales. Quantum mechanics differs from classical physics in that: energy , momentum and other quantities are often restricted to discrete values (quantization ), objects have characteristics of both particles and waves (i.e. wave-particle duality ), and there are limits to the precision with which quantities can be known (uncertainty principle )
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Magnetic
MAGNETISM is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields . Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets , producing magnetic fields themselves. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic; the most common ones are iron , nickel and cobalt and their alloys. The prefix ferro- refers to iron , because permanent magnetism was first observed in lodestone , a form of natural iron ore called magnetite , Fe3O4. Although ferromagnetism is responsible for most of the effects of magnetism encountered in everyday life, all other materials are influenced to some extent by a magnetic field, by several other types of magnetism
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Molecular Physics
MOLECULAR PHYSICS is the study of the physical properties of molecules , the chemical bonds between atoms as well as the molecular dynamics . Its most important experimental techniques are the various types of spectroscopy ; scattering is also used. The field is closely related to atomic physics and overlaps greatly with theoretical chemistry , physical chemistry and chemical physics . In addition to the electronic excitation states which are known from atoms, molecules exhibit rotational and vibrational modes whose energy levels are quantized. The smallest energy differences exist between different rotational states: pure rotational spectra are in the far infrared region (about 30 - 150 µm wavelength ) of the electromagnetic spectrum . Vibrational spectra are in the near infrared (about 1 - 5 µm) and spectra resulting from electronic transitions are mostly in the visible and ultraviolet regions
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Crystallography
CRYSTALLOGRAPHY is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in the crystalline solids (see crystal structure ). The word "crystallography" derives from the Greek words _crystallon_ "cold drop, frozen drop", with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and _graphein_ "to write". In July 2012, the United Nations recognised the importance of the science of crystallography by proclaiming that 2014 would be the International Year of Crystallography. X-ray crystallography is used to determine the structure of large biomolecules such as proteins . Before the development of X-ray diffraction crystallography (see below), the study of crystals was based on physical measurements of their geometry. This involved measuring the angles of crystal faces relative to each other and to theoretical reference axes (crystallographic axes), and establishing the symmetry of the crystal in question
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