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Nikon D3
The Nikon D3 is a 12.0-megapixel professional-grade full frame (35 mm) digital single lens reflex camera (DSLR) announced by the Nikon Corporation on 23 August 2007 along with the Nikon D300 DX format camera. It was Nikon's first full-frame DSLR. The D3, along with the Nikon D3X, was a flagship model in Nikon's line of DSLRs, superseding the D2Hs and D2Xs. It was replaced by the D3S as Nikon's flagship DSLR. The D3, D3X, D3S, D4, D5, D6, D700, D800, D800Е and Df are the only Nikon FX format DSLRs manufactured in Japan.[citation needed] The D3S was replaced by the D4 in 2012. The D3S was announced in October 2009
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Chromatic Aberration
Tilt
Spherical aberration
Astigmatism
Coma
Distortion
Petzval field curvature
Chromatic aberration Chromatic aberration also affects black-and-white photography. Although there are no colors in the photograph, chromatic aberration will blur the image. It can be reduced by using a narrow-band color filter, or by converting a single color channel to black and white. This will, however, require longer exposure (and change thChromatic aberration also affects black-and-white photography. Although there are no colors in the photograph, chromatic aberration will blur the image. It can be reduced by using a narrow-band color filter, or by converting a single color channel to black and white. This will, however, require longer exposure (and change the resulting image)
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35mm Format
The 35 mm format, or simply 35 mm, is the common name for the 36×24 mm film format or image sensor format used in photography. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43 mm. It has been employed in countless photographic applications including single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras, rangefinder cameras (film and digital), mirrorless interchangeable-lens digital cameras, digital SLRs, point-and-shoot film cameras, and disposable film cameras. The format originated with Oskar Barnack and his introduction of the Leica camera in the 1920s.[1] Thus it is sometimes called the Leica format[2] or Barnack format.[3] The name 35 mm originates with the total width of the 135 film, the perforated cartridge film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame DSLR. The term 135 format remains in use
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Viewfinder
In photography, a viewfinder is what the photographer looks through to compose, and, in many cases, to focus the picture. Most viewfinders are separate, and suffer parallax, while the single-lens reflex camera lets the viewfinder use the main optical system. Viewfinders are used in many cameras of different types: still and movie, film, analog and digital. A zoom camera usually zooms its finder in sync with its lens, one exception being rangefinder cameras. Before the development of microelectronics and electronic display devices, only optical viewfinders existed.

Direct optical viewfinders

Direct viewfinders are essentially miniature Galilean telescopes; the viewer's eye was placed at the back, and the scene viewed through the viewfinder optics. A declining minority of point and shoot cameras use them. Parallax error results from the viewfinder being offset from the lens axis, to point above and usually to one side of the lens
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Sharpness (visual)
In photography, the term "acutance" describes a subjective perception of sharpness that is related to the edge contrast of an image.[1][2] Acutance is related to the amplitude of the derivative of brightness with respect to space. Due to the nature of the human visual system, an image with higher acutance appears sharper even though an increase in acutance does not increase real resolution. Historically, acutance was enhanced chemically during development of a negative (high acutance developers), or by optical means in printing (unsharp masking). In digital photography, onboard camera software and image postprocessing tools such as Photoshop or GIMP offer various sharpening facilities, the most widely used of which is known as "unsharp mask" because the algorithm is derived from the eponymous analog processing method
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Color Depth

Color depth or colour depth (see spelling differences), also known as bit depth, is either the number of bits used to indicate the color of a single pixel, in a bitmapped image or video framebuffer, or the number of bits used for each color component of a single pixel. For consumer video standards, the bit depth specifies the number of bits used for each color component.[1][2][3][4] When referring to a pixel, the concept can be defined as bits per pixel (bpp)
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Image Histogram
An image histogram is a type of histogram that acts as a graphical representation of the tonal distribution in a digital image.[1] It plots the number of pixels for each tonal value. By looking at the histogram for a specific image a viewer will be able to judge the entire tonal distribution at a glance. Image histograms are present on many modern digital cameras. Photographers can use them as an aid to show the distribution of tones captured, and whether image detail has been lost to blown-out highlights or blacked-out shadows.[2] This is less useful when using a raw image format, as the dynamic range of the displayed image may only be an approximation to that in the raw file.[
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