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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[note 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation.[1] To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.[2]Contents1 History 2 Geodetic datum 3 Horizontal coordinates3.1 Latitude
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Juno I
The Juno I
Juno I
was a four-stage American booster rocket which launched America's first satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958. A member of the Redstone rocket family, it was derived from the Jupiter-C
Jupiter-C
sounding rocket. It is commonly confused with the Juno II
Juno II
launch vehicle, which was derived from the PGM-19 Jupiter
PGM-19 Jupiter
medium-range ballistic missile.Contents1 Development 2 History 3 Gallery 4 ReferencesDevelopment[edit] The Juno I
Juno I
consisted of a Jupiter-C
Jupiter-C
rocket with a fourth stage mounted on top of the "tub" of the third stage, and fired after third-stage burnout to boost the payload and fourth stage to an orbital velocity of 8 kilometres per second (29,000 km/h; 18,000 mph)
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United States Dollar
The United States
United States
dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States
United States
and its territories per the United States
United States
Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent (¢) units, but is occasionally divided into 1000 mills (₥) for accounting. The circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Notes that are denominated in United States dollars (12 U.S.C. § 418). Since the suspension in 1971[4] of convertibility of paper U.S. currency into any precious metal, the U.S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money.[5] As it is the most used in international transactions, the U.S
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1][a] .mw-parser-ou
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Federal Government Of The United States
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Co
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Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States.[5] Founded after the American Revolution
American Revolution
as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first president of the
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Vanguard (rocket)
The Vanguard rocket[2] was intended to be the first launch vehicle the United States would use to place a satellite into orbit. Instead, the Sputnik crisis
Sputnik crisis
caused by the surprise launch of Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
led the U.S., after the failure of Vanguard TV3, to quickly orbit the Explorer 1 satellite using a Juno I
Juno I
rocket, making Vanguard I
Vanguard I
the second successful U.S. orbital launch. Vanguard rockets were used by Project Vanguard
Project Vanguard
from 1957 to 1959. Of the eleven Vanguard rockets which the project attempted to launch, three successfully placed satellites into orbit
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Expendable Launch Vehicle
An expendable launch vehicle (ELV) is a launch system or launch vehicle stage that is used only once to carry a payload into space. Historically, satellites and human spacecraft are launched mainly using expendable launchers. Their components are not recovered. This contrasts with a reusable launch system or RLV, in which some or all of the components are recovered intact. The vehicle typically consists of several rocket stages, discarded one by one as the vehicle gains altitude and speed. A few companies are developing reusable launch systems intended to cut costs. A reusable launch vehicle, such as the SpaceX
SpaceX
Falcon 9 first-stage booster, may be flown in "expendable configuration" to increase performance, although this is unusual. The now-retired Space Shuttle was one of the earliest RLVs, and was intended to greatly reduce launch costs
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Atlas LV-3B
The Atlas LV-3B, Atlas D Mercury Launch Vehicle or Mercury-Atlas Launch Vehicle, was a human-rated expendable launch system used as part of the United States Project Mercury
Project Mercury
to send astronauts into low Earth orbit. Manufactured by American aircraft manufacturing company Convair, it was derived from the SM-65D Atlas
SM-65D Atlas
missile, and was a member of the Atlas family of rockets. The Atlas D missile was the natural choice for Project Mercury
Project Mercury
since it was the only launch vehicle in the US arsenal that could put the spacecraft into orbit and also had a large number of flights to gather data from
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Titan (rocket Family)
Titan is a family of United States expendable rockets used between 1959 and 2005. A total of 368 rockets of this family were launched, including all the Project Gemini
Project Gemini
manned flights of the mid-1960s. Titans were part of the US Air Force's intercontinental ballistic missile fleet until 1987, and lifted other American military payloads as well as civilian agency intelligence-gathering satellites. Titans also were used to send highly successful interplanetary scientific probes throughout the Solar System.Contents1 Titan I 2 Titan II 3 Titan III 4 Titan IV 5 Titan V 6 Rocket
Rocket
fuel 7 Accidents at Titan II silos 8 Retirement 9 Specifications 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External linksTitan I[edit] Main article: HGM-25A Titan I The HGM-25A Titan I
Titan I
was the first version of the Titan family of rockets
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Jeff DeWit
Jeffrey DeWit (born 1972 or 1973) is an American businessman and politician from the state of Arizona. A member of the Republican Party, DeWit became the State Treasurer of Arizona
State Treasurer of Arizona
in 2015, succeeding Doug Ducey. DeWit said in 2016 that he did not plan to seek re-election in 2018. In 2017, President Trump nominated him to be chief financial officer of NASA.[2] His nomination as chief financial officer of NASA
NASA
was confirmed by the U.S. Senate in March 2018.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Political career 3 Personal life 4 Electoral history 5 References 6 External linksEarly life and education[edit] DeWit received his degree in Business Administration and Finance from the University of Southern California, and began his career in 1992 at Smith Barney Shearson
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Manned Venus Flyby
A number of proposals for a manned Venus
Venus
flyby have been considered since the start of the space age.Contents1 Apollo Applications Program1.1 Background 1.2 Scientific objectives 1.3 Mission development1.3.1 Phase A 1.3.2 Phase B 1.3.3 Phase C2 TMK-MAVR 3 Inspiration Mars 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksApollo Applications Program[edit]Cutaway diagram of the Venus
Venus
flyby spacecraft. NASA
NASA
considered a manned fly-by of Venus
Venus
in the mid-1960s as part of the Apollo Applications Program, using hardware derived from the Apollo program
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Saturn IB
The Saturn IB
Saturn IB
(pronounced "one B", also known as the Uprated Saturn I) was an American launch vehicle commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the Apollo program. It replaced the S-IV
S-IV
second stage of the Saturn I
Saturn I
with the much more powerful S-IVB, able to launch a partially fueled Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM) or a fully fueled Lunar Module (LM) into low Earth orbit for early flight tests before the larger Saturn V needed for lunar flight was ready. By sharing the S-IVB
S-IVB
upper stage, the Saturn IB
Saturn IB
and Saturn V
Saturn V
provided a common interface to the Apollo spacecraft
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Manned Orbiting Laboratory
The Manned Orbiting Laboratory
Manned Orbiting Laboratory
(MOL), originally referred to as the Manned Orbital Laboratory, was part of the United States
United States
Air Force's manned spaceflight program, a successor to the cancelled Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar military reconnaissance space plane project. The project was developed from several early Air Force and NASA
NASA
concepts of manned space stations to be used for reconnaissance purposes
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Atlas-Agena
The Atlas-Agena
Atlas-Agena
was an American expendable launch system derived from the SM-65 Atlas
SM-65 Atlas
missile. It was a member of the Atlas family of rockets, and was launched 109 times between 1960 and 1978.[1] It was used to launch the first five Mariner unmanned probes to the planets Venus
Venus
and Mars, and the Ranger and Lunar Orbiter unmanned probes to the Moon. The upper stage was also used as an unmanned orbital target vehicle for the Gemini manned spacecraft to practice rendezvous and docking. However, the launch vehicle family was originally developed for the Air Force and most of its launches were classified DoD payloads. The Atlas-Agena
Atlas-Agena
was a two-and-a-half-stage rocket, with a stage-and-a-half Atlas missile as the first stage, and an RM-81 Agena second stage
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