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Mzab–Wargla Languages
The Mzab–Wargla languages
Mzab–Wargla languages
or Northern Saharan oasis dialects are a dialect cluster of the Zenati languages, within the Northern Berber subbranch
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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Dialect Cluster
The term dialect (from Latin
Latin
dialectus, dialectos, from the Ancient Greek word διάλεκτος, diálektos, "discourse", from διά, diá, "through" and λέγω, légō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena:One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers.[1] Under this definition, the dialects or varieties of a particular language are closely related and, despite their differences, are most often largely mutually intelligible, especially if close to one another on the dialect continuum
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Roger Blench
Roger Marsh Blench (born 1953) is a British linguist, ethnomusicologist and development anthropologist. He has an M.A. and a Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
and remains based in Cambridge, England. He actively researches and publishes, although he works as a private consultant rather than in academia. A noted expert in African linguistics,[1] Blench's main area of linguistic interest is the Niger–Congo language family
Niger–Congo language family
although he has also researched the Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
and Afroasiatic
Afroasiatic
families. He has also written about other language families and endangered languages. Additionally, Blench has published extensively on the relationship between linguistics and archaeology, principally in Africa, but more recently also in East Asia
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Morocco
Coordinates: 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6Kingdom of Moroccoالمملكة المغربية (Arabic) ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Berber)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  لله، الوطن، الملك  (Arabic) Allah, Al Watan, Al Malik ⴰⴽⵓⵛ, ⴰⵎⵓⵔ, ⴰⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ (Berber)"God, Homeland, King"Anthem:  النشيد الوطني المغربي  (Arabic) ⵉⵣⵍⵉ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ  (Berber) Cherifian AnthemDark green: Internationally recognized territory of Morocco. Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and mostly controlled by Morocco
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Ethnologue
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, and is now published annually by SIL International, a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization
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Algeria
Coordinates: 28°N 2°E / 28°N 2°E / 28; 2People's Democratic Republic of Algeria الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية (Arabic) ⵟⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴻⴳⴷⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴰⵖⴻⵔⴼⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⴰⵢⵔⵉⵜ (Berber) République Algérienne Démocratique et Populaire (French)FlagEmblemMotto: بالشّعب وللشّعب By the people and for the people[1][2]Anthem: Kassaman (English: "We Pledge")Location of  Algeria  (dark green)Capital and largest city Algiers 36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.700°N 3.217°E / 36.700; 3.217Official languagesArabic[3] Berber[4]Other languagesFrench (business and education)[5] Darja
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Historical Language
Historical languages (also known as historic languages) are languages that were spoken in a historical period, but that are distinct from their modern form; that is, they are forms of languages historically attested to from the past which have evolved into more modern forms. Thus, historical languages contrast with dead languages (languages which have become extinct, or undergone language death). Also, historical languages contrast with reconstructed languages (that is, the proto-languages) of theoretical linguistics
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Afroasiatic Languages
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic)[3] or Semito-Hamitic,[4] is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.[5] It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and parts of the Sahel. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 495 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo).[6] The phylum has six branches: Berber, Chadic, Cushitic, Egyptian, Omotic
Omotic
and Semitic. By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic. A language within the Semitic branch, it includes Modern Standard Arabic as well as spoken colloquial varieties
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Fezzan Language
Sokna (also Sawknah, Sukna; native name: Tasuknit[3]) is a presumably extinct Eastern Berber language
Eastern Berber language
which was spoken in the town of Sokna (Isuknan) and the village of Fuqaha in northeastern Fezzan
Fezzan
in Libya. According to Václav Blažek (1999), Sokna was also spoken in the oasis of Tmessa.[4] The most extensive and recent materials on it are Sarnelli (1924)[5] for Sokna and Paradisi (1963)[6] for El-Fogaha. Both articles report that the language was spoken only by a handful of old people at the time, so it is generally presumed to be extinct. Aikhenvald & Militarev (1984) and Blench (2006) consider Sokna and Fezzan
Fezzan
to be separate languages. Blench lists Tmessa and Al-Foqaha as dialects of Fezzan. References[edit]^ Sokna at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(17th ed., 2013) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sawknah"
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Foqaha Language
Sokna (also Sawknah, Sukna; native name: Tasuknit[3]) is a presumably extinct Eastern Berber language
Eastern Berber language
which was spoken in the town of Sokna (Isuknan) and the village of Fuqaha in northeastern Fezzan
Fezzan
in Libya. According to Václav Blažek (1999), Sokna was also spoken in the oasis of Tmessa.[4] The most extensive and recent materials on it are Sarnelli (1924)[5] for Sokna and Paradisi (1963)[6] for El-Fogaha. Both articles report that the language was spoken only by a handful of old people at the time, so it is generally presumed to be extinct. Aikhenvald & Militarev (1984) and Blench (2006) consider Sokna and Fezzan
Fezzan
to be separate languages. Blench lists Tmessa and Al-Foqaha as dialects of Fezzan. References[edit]^ Sokna at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(17th ed., 2013) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sawknah"
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Sokna Language
Sokna (also Sawknah, Sukna; native name: Tasuknit[3]) is a presumably extinct Eastern Berber language
Eastern Berber language
which was spoken in the town of Sokna (Isuknan) and the village of Fuqaha in northeastern Fezzan
Fezzan
in Libya. According to Václav Blažek (1999), Sokna was also spoken in the oasis of Tmessa.[4] The most extensive and recent materials on it are Sarnelli (1924)[5] for Sokna and Paradisi (1963)[6] for El-Fogaha. Both articles report that the language was spoken only by a handful of old people at the time, so it is generally presumed to be extinct. Aikhenvald & Militarev (1984) and Blench (2006) consider Sokna and Fezzan
Fezzan
to be separate languages. Blench lists Tmessa and Al-Foqaha as dialects of Fezzan. References[edit]^ Sokna at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(17th ed., 2013) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sawknah"
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Tmessa Language
Sokna (also Sawknah, Sukna; native name: Tasuknit[3]) is a presumably extinct Eastern Berber language
Eastern Berber language
which was spoken in the town of Sokna (Isuknan) and the village of Fuqaha in northeastern Fezzan
Fezzan
in Libya. According to Václav Blažek (1999), Sokna was also spoken in the oasis of Tmessa.[4] The most extensive and recent materials on it are Sarnelli (1924)[5] for Sokna and Paradisi (1963)[6] for El-Fogaha. Both articles report that the language was spoken only by a handful of old people at the time, so it is generally presumed to be extinct. Aikhenvald & Militarev (1984) and Blench (2006) consider Sokna and Fezzan
Fezzan
to be separate languages. Blench lists Tmessa and Al-Foqaha as dialects of Fezzan. References[edit]^ Sokna at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(17th ed., 2013) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sawknah"
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Ghadamès Language
Ghadamès (Berber: Ɛdimes, [ʕdimes] or Ɣdames, [Ɣdames]; Arabic: غدامس, [ɣadaːmes]) is a Berber language
Berber language
that is spoken in the oasis town of Ghadames
Ghadames
in Nalut District, Libya.Contents1 Research 2 Number of speakers 3 The language 4 Phonology 5 References 6 BibliographyResearch[edit] Ghadamès language materials have been gathered by two linguists. The first materials were published in 1903 and 1904 by Adolphe de Calassanti Motylinski (1854–1907). A more copious and reliable source is provided by the works of White Father Jacques Lanfry, who stayed in Ghadames
Ghadames
from 1944 to 1945 and who published his main works in 1968 and 1973. No new research has been undertaken on location since then. Recently, Kossmann (2013) has published a modern grammar of Ghadamès based on Lanfry’s materials. Number of speakers[edit] Lanfry mentions the number of c
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