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Musical Composition
MUSICAL COMPOSITION can refer to an original piece of music , either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music. People who create new compositions are called composers in classical music . In popular music and traditional music , the creators of new songs are usually called songwriters ; with songs, the person who writes new words for a song is the lyricist . "Composition" is the act or practice of creating a song or other piece of music. In many cultures, including Western classical music , the act of composing typically includes the creation of music notation , such as a sheet music "score" , which is then performed by the composer or by other instrumental musicians or singers. In popular music and traditional music, songwriting may involve the creation of a basic outline of the song, called the lead sheet , which sets out the melody , lyrics and chord progression
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Scherzo In A-flat Major (Borodin)
Alexander Borodin 's SCHERZO IN A-FLAT MAJOR is a lively piece written in 1885, while Borodin was in Belgium for an early performance of his then incomplete opera Prince Igor . It was originally written for solo piano but in 1889 Alexander Glazunov orchestrated it, along with the Petite Suite . Borodin dedicated the piece to Théodore Jadoul, who made a four-hand piano arrangement of it. CONTENTS * 1 Style * 2 Recordings * 3 Orchestration * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links STYLEThe Scherzo can be recognized as one of Borodin's compositions instantaneously because of its bright tone, pounding rhythms and exciting melodies
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Romantic Music
ROMANTIC MUSIC is an era of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century. It is related to Romanticism , the European artistic and literary movement that arose in the second half of the 18th century, and Romantic music in particular dominated the Romantic movement in Germany. _ The title character from a 19th-century performance of Wagner 's opera Siegfried _ In the Romantic period, music became more expressive and emotional, expanding to encompass literary, artistic, and philosophical themes. Famous early Romantic composers include Beethoven (whose works span both this period and the preceding Classical period) , Schubert , Schumann , Chopin , Mendelssohn , Bellini , and Berlioz . The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra and in the dynamic range and diversity of instruments used in this ensemble
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Alexander Borodin
ALEXANDER PORFIRYEVICH BORODIN (Russian : Алекса́ндр Порфи́рьевич Бороди́н; IPA: ( listen ), 12 November 1833 – 27 February 1887) was a Russian Romantic composer of Georgian origin, as well as a doctor and chemist. He was one of the prominent 19th century composers known as The Mighty Handful
The Mighty Handful
, a group dedicated to producing a uniquely Russian kind of classical music, rather than imitating earlier Western European models. Borodin is best known for his symphonies , his two string quartets , _ In the Steppes of Central Asia_ and his opera _ Prince Igor_. Music from _Prince Igor_ and his string quartets was later adapted for the US musical _Kismet _. A notable advocate of women\'s rights , Borodin was a promoter of education in Russia
Russia
and founded the School of Medicine for Women in St. Petersburg
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Songwriter
A SONGWRITER is a professional who is paid to write lyrics and melodies for songs , typically for a popular music genre such as rock or country music . A songwriter can also be called a composer , although the latter term tends to be used mainly for individuals from the classical music genre. The pressure from the music industry to produce popular hits means that songwriting is often an activity for which the tasks are distributed between a number of people. For example, a songwriter who excels at writing lyrics might be paired with a songwriter with the task of creating original melodies. Pop songs may be written by group members from the band or by staff writers – songwriters directly employed by music publishers . Some songwriters serve as their own music publishers, while others have outside publishers. The old-style apprenticeship approach to learning how to write songs is being supplemented by university degrees and college diplomas and "rock schools"
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Lead Sheet
A LEAD SHEET is a form of musical notation that specifies the essential elements of a popular song : the melody , lyrics and harmony . The melody is written in modern Western music notation , the lyric is written as text below the staff and the harmony is specified with chord symbols above the staff. The lead sheet does not describe the chord voicings , voice leading , bass line or other aspects of the accompaniment . These are specified later by an arranger or improvised by a performer or rhythm section , and are considered aspects of the arrangement or performance of a song, rather than a part of the song itself. An exception occurs in some cases in a fake book , when a song has an ostinato bass part which forms an essential part of the song's identity, such as the bassline in " A Night in Tunisia "; in these rare cases, a few bars of the bassline may be given
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Melody
A MELODY ("singing, chanting"), also TUNE, VOICE, or LINE, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm , while more figuratively, the term can include successions of other musical elements such as tonal color . It may be considered the foreground to the background accompaniment . A line or part need not be a foreground melody. Melodies often consist of one or more musical phrases or motifs , and are usually repeated throughout a composition in various forms. Melodies may also be described by their melodic motion or the pitches or the intervals between pitches (predominantly conjunct or disjunct or with further restrictions), pitch range, tension and release, continuity and coherence, cadence , and shape. The true goal of music—its proper enterprise—is melody
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Chord Progression
A CHORD PROGRESSION or HARMONIC PROGRESSION is a succession of musical chords , which are three or more notes, typically sounded simultaneously. Chord progressions are the foundation of harmony in Western musical tradition from the common practice era of Classical music to the 21st century. Chord progressions are the foundation of Western popular music styles (e.g., pop music , rock music ) and traditional music (e.g., blues and jazz ). In tonal music, chord progressions have the function of establishing or contradicting a tonality , the technical name for what is commonly understood as the "key" of a song or piece. Chord progressions are usually expressed by Roman numerals in Classical music music theory; for example, the common chord progression I vi/ii V7. In many styles of popular and traditional music, chord progressions are expressed using the name and "quality" of the chords
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Jazz
JAZZ is a music genre that originated in African American communities of New Orleans , United States , in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime . Since the 1920s Jazz Age , jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression. It then emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African American and European American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes , call and response vocals , polyrhythms and improvisation . Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression , and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime , as well as European military band music
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Chord Chart
A CHORD CHART (or CHART) is a form of musical notation that describes the basic harmonic and rhythmic information for a song or tune. It is the most common form of notation used by professional session musicians playing jazz or popular music . It is intended primarily for a rhythm section (usually consisting of piano , guitar , drums and bass ). In these genres the musicians are expected to be able to improvise the actual notes used for the chords and the appropriate ornamentation , counter melody or bassline . In some chord charts, the harmony is given as a series of chord symbols above a traditional musical staff . The rhythmic information can be very specific and written using a form of traditional notation, sometimes called RHYTHMIC NOTATION, or it can be completely unspecified using SLASH NOTATION, allowing the musician to fill the bar with chords or fills any way he or she sees fit (called "comping ")
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Music
MUSIC is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time . The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony ), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo , meter , and articulation ), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping ; there are solely instrumental pieces , solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment ) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek μουσική (_mousike_; "art of the Muses ")
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Song
A SONG, most broadly, is a single (and often standalone) work of music that is typically intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that often include the repetition of sections. Written words created specifically for music or for which music is specifically created, are called lyrics . If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song . Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants . Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are often referred to as folk songs . Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs. These songs, which have broad appeal, are often composed by professional songwriters , composers and lyricists
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Musical Form
The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music,[2] and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.[3] In the tenth edition of The Oxford Companion to Music, Percy Scholes defines musical form as "a series of strategies designed to find a successful mean between the opposite extremes of unrelieved repetition and unrelieved alteration."[4] According to Richard Middleton, musical form is "the shape or structure of the work." He describes it through difference: the distance moved from a repeat; the latter being the smallest difference. Difference is quantitative and qualitative: how far, and of what type, different
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Composer
A COMPOSER ( Latin _compōnō_; literally "one who puts together") is a person who creates or writes music , which can be vocal music (for a singer or choir ), instrumental music (e.g., for solo piano , string quartet , wind quintet or orchestra ) or music which combines both instruments and voices (e.g., opera or art song , which is a singer accompanied by a pianist). The core meaning of the term refers to individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation (e.g., sheet music scores). Many composers are also skilled performers, either as singers, instrumentalists , or conductors . Examples of composers who are also well known for their ability as performers include J. S. Bach (an organist ), Mozart (violin and piano ), and Beethoven , Liszt and Chopin (all skilled pianists)
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Classical Music
CLASSICAL MUSIC is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music , including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more accurate term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period ), this article is about the broad span of time from roughly the 11th century to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period
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Popular Music
POPULAR MUSIC is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry . These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training . It stands in contrast to both art music and traditional or "folk" music . Art music was historically disseminated through the performances of written music , although since the beginning of the recording industry , it is also disseminated through recordings . Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences. The original application of the term is to music of the 1880s Tin Pan Alley period in the United States. Although popular music sometimes is known as "pop music", the two terms are not interchangeable
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