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Musical Composition
MUSICAL COMPOSITION can refer to an original piece of music , either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music. People who create new compositions are called composers in classical music . In popular music and traditional music , the creators of new songs are usually called songwriters ; with songs, the person who writes new words for a song is the lyricist . "Composition" is the act or practice of creating a song or other piece of music. In many cultures, including Western classical music , the act of composing typically includes the creation of music notation , such as a sheet music "score" , which is then performed by the composer or by other instrumental musicians or singers. In popular music and traditional music, songwriting may involve the creation of a basic outline of the song, called the lead sheet , which sets out the melody , lyrics and chord progression
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Graphic Notation (music)
GRAPHIC NOTATION is the representation of music through the use of visual symbols outside the realm of traditional music notation . Graphic notation evolved in the 1950s, and it is often used in combination with traditional music notation. Composers often rely on graphic notation in experimental music , where standard musical notation can be ineffective. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Examples of graphic notation * 3 Other composers who have used graphic notation * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORYA common aspect of graphic notation is the use of symbols to convey information to the performer about the way the piece is to be performed
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Aus Den Sieben Tagen
AUS DEN SIEBEN TAGEN (From the Seven Days) is a collection of 15 text compositions by Karlheinz Stockhausen
Karlheinz Stockhausen
, composed in May 1968, in reaction to a personal crisis, and characterized as "Intuitive music "—music produced primarily from the intuition rather than the intellect of the performer(s). It is Work Number 26 in the composer's catalog of works. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Content * 3 Related works * 4 Discography * 5 References * 6 Further reading HISTORYThe seven days of the title were 7–13 May 1968. Although this coincided with the beginning of the May 1968 protests and general strike in Paris
Paris
, Stockhausen does not appear to have been aware of them at the time. These texts were written at Stockhausen's home in Kürten during the first five of those days, at night or late in the evening (Stockhausen 1978 , 149 and 529)
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Aleatoric Music
ALEATORIC MUSIC (also ALEATORY MUSIC or CHANCE MUSIC; from the Latin word alea, meaning "dice ") is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance , and/or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer(s). The term is most often associated with procedures in which the chance element involves a relatively limited number of possibilities. The term became known to European composers through lectures by acoustician Werner Meyer-Eppler at the Darmstadt International Summer Courses for New Music
Music
in the beginning of the 1950s. According to his definition, “a process is said to be aleatoric if its course is determined in general but depends on chance in detail” (Meyer-Eppler 1957 , 55)
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John Cage
JOHN MILTON CAGE JR. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer, music theorist , writer, philosopher, and artist. A pioneer of indeterminacy in music , electroacoustic music , and non-standard use of musical instruments , Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde . Critics have lauded him as one of the most influential composers of the 20th century. He was also instrumental in the development of modern dance , mostly through his association with choreographer Merce Cunningham , who was also Cage's romantic partner for most of their lives. Cage is perhaps best known for his 1952 composition 4′33″ , which is performed in the absence of deliberate sound; musicians who present the work do nothing aside from being present for the duration specified by the title
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Sound Recording
SOUND RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION is an electrical , mechanical , electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music , or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording . Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems for encoding and reproducing instrumental music, such as wind-up music boxes and, later, player pianos . Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that can detect and sense the changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and record them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record)
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Arranger
In music , an ARRANGEMENT is a musical reconceptualization of a previously composed work. It may differ from the original work by means of reharmonization, melodic paraphrasing, orchestration, or development of the formal structure. Arranging differs from orchestration in that the latter process is limited to the assignment of notes to instruments for performance by an orchestra , concert band , or other musical ensemble . Arranging "involves adding compositional techniques, such as new thematic material for introductions, transitions, or modulations , and endings.... Arranging is the art of giving an existing melody musical variety"
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Countermelody
In music , a COUNTER-MELODY (often COUNTERMELODY) is a sequence of notes , perceived as a melody, written to be played simultaneously with a more prominent lead melody : a secondary melody played in counterpoint with the primary melody. A counter-melody performs a subordinate role, and is typically heard in a texture consisting of a melody plus accompaniment . In marches, the counter melody is often given to the trombones or horns (American composer David Wallis Reeves is credited with this innovation in 1876. ) The more formal term countersubject applies to a secondary or subordinate melodic idea in a fugue . A countermelody differs from a barbershop quartet-style harmony part sung by a backup singer in that whereas the harmony part typically lacks its own independent musical line, a countermelody is a distinct melodic line
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Scherzo In A-flat Major (Borodin)
Alexander Borodin 's SCHERZO IN A-FLAT MAJOR is a lively piece written in 1885, while Borodin was in Belgium for an early performance of his then incomplete opera Prince Igor . It was originally written for solo piano but in 1889 Alexander Glazunov orchestrated it, along with the Petite Suite . Borodin dedicated the piece to Théodore Jadoul, who made a four-hand piano arrangement of it. CONTENTS * 1 Style * 2 Recordings * 3 Orchestration * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links STYLEThe Scherzo can be recognized as one of Borodin's compositions instantaneously because of its bright tone, pounding rhythms and exciting melodies
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Pop Music
POP MUSIC is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States
United States
and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are often used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular and includes many different styles. "Pop" and "rock " were roughly synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became increasingly differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music
Pop music
is eclectic, and often borrows elements from other styles such as urban , dance , rock , Latin , and country ; nonetheless, there are core elements that define pop music
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Morton Feldman
MORTON FELDMAN (January 12, 1926 – September 3, 1987) was an American composer. A major figure in 20th-century music
20th-century music
, Feldman was a pioneer of indeterminate music , a development associated with the experimental New York School of composers also including John Cage
John Cage
, Christian Wolff , and Earle Brown . Feldman's works are characterized by notational innovations that he developed to create his characteristic sound: rhythms that seem to be free and floating; pitch shadings that seem softly unfocused; a generally quiet and slowly evolving music; recurring asymmetric patterns. His later works, after 1977, also begin to explore extremes of duration
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Witold Lutosławski
WITOLD ROMAN LUTOSłAWSKI (Polish: ; 25 January 1913 – 7 February 1994) was a Polish composer and orchestral conductor . He was one of the major European composers of the 20th century, and one of the preeminent Polish musicians during his last three decades. He earned many international awards and prizes. His compositions (of which he was a notable conductor) include four symphonies , a Concerto for Orchestra , a string quartet, instrumental works, concertos , and orchestral song cycles . During his youth, Lutosławski studied piano and composition in Warsaw
Warsaw
. His early works were influenced by Polish folk music . His style demonstrates a wide range of rich atmospheric textures . He began developing his own characteristic composition techniques in the late 1950s
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Jean-Benjamin De La Borde
JEAN-BENJAMIN DE LA BORDE (5 September 1734 – 22 July 1794) was a French composer, writer on music and fermier général (farm tax collector). Born into an aristocratic family, he studied violin under Antoine Dauvergne and composition under Jean-Philippe Rameau . From 1762 to 1774, he served at the court of Louis XV as premier valet de la chambre , losing his post on the death of the king. He wrote many operas, mostly comic, and a four-volume collection of songs for solo voice, Choix de chansons mises en musique illustrated by Jean-Michel Moreau . Many of the songs from the collection were later published individually through the efforts of the English folksong collector Lucy Etheldred Broadwood . His Essai sur la musique ancienne et moderne was published in 1780. La Borde was guillotined during the French Revolution in 1794
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Musical Notation
MUSIC NOTATION or MUSICAL NOTATION is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols, including ancient symbols or modern musical symbols and including ancient symbols cut into stone, made in clay tablets or made using a pen on papyrus , parchment or manuscript paper ; printed using a printing press (ca. 1400s), a computer printer (ca. 1980s) or other printing or modern copying technology . Types and methods of notation have varied between cultures and throughout history, and much information about ancient music notation is fragmentary
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Acoustic Music
ACOUSTIC MUSIC is music that solely or primarily uses instruments that produce sound through acoustic means, as opposed to electric or electronic means. While all music was once acoustic, the retronym "acoustic music" appeared after the advent of electric instruments, such as the electric guitar , electric violin , electric organ and synthesizer . It has its origins in the folk music of the 1960s. Following the increasing popularity of the television show MTV Unplugged during the 1990s, acoustic (though in most cases still electrically amplified) performances by musicians (most notably grunge bands) who usually rely on electronic instruments became colloquially referred to as "unplugged" performances. The trend has also been dubbed as "acoustic rock" in some cases
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Opera
OPERA (Italian: ; English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere ) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto ) and musical score , usually in a theatrical setting . In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing: recitative , a speech-inflected style and arias , a more melodic style, in which notes are sung in a sustained fashion. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre , such as acting , scenery , and costumes and sometimes includes dance . The performance is typically given in an opera house , accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble , which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor . Opera
Opera
is a key part of the Western classical music tradition
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