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Music Genre
A MUSIC GENRE is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from _musical form _ and _musical style_, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Recently, academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways. The artistic nature of music means that these classifications are often subjective and controversial, and some genres may overlap. There are even varying academic definitions of the term _genre_ itself. In his book _Form in Tonal Music_, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between genre and form . He lists madrigal , motet , canzona , ricercar , and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of _genre_, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, and the _Agnus Dei_ from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form." Some, like Peter van der Merwe , treat the terms _genre_ and _style_ as the same, saying that _genre_ should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Music
MUSIC is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time . The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony ), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo , meter , and articulation ), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping ; there are solely instrumental pieces , solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment ) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek μουσική (_mousike_; "art of the Muses "). In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form or cultural activity include the creation of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies , and so on), the criticism of music , the study of the history of music , and the aesthetic examination of music . Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres " and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to
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Musical Form
The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music,[2] and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.[3] In the tenth edition of The Oxford Companion to Music, Percy Scholes defines musical form as "a series of strategies designed to find a successful mean between the opposite extremes of unrelieved repetition and unrelieved alteration."[4] According to Richard Middleton, musical form is "the shape or structure of the work." He describes it through difference: the distance moved from a repeat; the latter being the smallest difference. Difference is quantitative and qualitative: how far, and of what type, different
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Genre
GENRE (/ˈʒɒ̃rə/ , /ˈʒɒnrə/ or /ˈdʒɒnrə/ ; from French _genre_ , "kind" or "sort", from Latin _genus_ (stem _gener-_), Greek γένος, _génos_) is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time. Genre
Genre
is most popularly known as a category of literature , music , or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, rhetorical, communicative, or functional. Genres form by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented and the use of old ones is discontinued. Often, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, but genres are amalgams of these texts based on agreed upon or socially inferred conventions. Some genres may be rigid with strictly adhered to guidelines while others may be very flexible. Genre
Genre
began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek literature . Poetry
Poetry
, prose , and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story
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Madrigal (music)
A MADRIGAL is a secular vocal music composition of the Renaissance and early Baroque eras. Traditionally, polyphonic madrigals are unaccompanied ; the number of voices varies from two to eight, and most frequently from three to six. It is quite distinct from the Italian Trecento madrigal of the late 13th and 14th centuries, with which it shares only the name. Madrigals originated in Italy during the 1520s . Unlike many strophic forms of the time, most madrigals were through-composed . In the madrigal, the composer attempted to express the emotion contained in each line, and sometimes individual words, of a celebrated poem. The madrigal originated in part from the frottola , in part from the resurgence in interest in vernacular Italian poetry, and also from the influence of the French chanson and polyphonic style of the motet as written by the Franco-Flemish composers who had naturalized in Italy during the period. A frottola generally would consist of music set to stanzas of text, while madrigals were through-composed. However, some of the same poems were used for both frottola and madrigals. The poetry of Petrarch in particular shows up in a wide variety of genres. In Italy, the madrigal was the most important secular form of music of its time. The madrigal reached its formal and historical zenith by the second half of the 16th century. English and German composers, too, took up the madrigal in its heyday
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Motet
In western music, a MOTET is a mainly vocal musical composition, of highly varied form and style, from the late medieval era to the present. The motet was one of the pre-eminent polyphonic forms of Renaissance music . According to Margaret Bent , "a piece of music in several parts with words" is as precise a definition of the motet as will serve from the 13th to the late 16th century and beyond. The late 13th-century theorist Johannes de Grocheo believed that the motet was "not to be celebrated in the presence of common people, because they do not notice its subtlety, nor are they delighted in hearing it, but in the presence of the educated and of those who are seeking out subtleties in the arts". CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Medieval
Medieval
examples * 2.1 Medieval
Medieval
composers * 3 Renaissance examples * 3.1 Renaissance composers * 4 Baroque examples * 4.1 J.S. Bach\'s compositions * 5 Since Bach * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYIn the early 20th century, it was generally believed the name came from the Latin
Latin
movere, ("to move"), though a derivation from the French mot ("word", or "phrase"), had also been suggested. The Medieval
Medieval
Latin
Latin
for "motet" is motectum, and the Italian mottetto was also used
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Canzona
The _CANZONA_ (It. plural _CANZONE_) is an instrumental musical form of the 16th and 17th centuries that developed from the Netherlandish chanson (Caldwell 2001 ). It differed from the similar forms of ricercare and fantasia in its livelier, markedly rhythmic material and separation into distinct sections (Grout 1960 , 299). At first based on Franco-Flemish polyphonic songs (chansons), later independently composed, the instrumental canzonas, such as the brass canzonas of Giovanni Gabrieli
Giovanni Gabrieli
and the keyboard canzonas of Girolamo Frescobaldi , influenced the fugue , and the ensemble canzonas were the direct ancestors of the 17th-century _sonata da chiesa _ (Grout 1960 , 252). In Italian, _canzona_ literally means "song". REFERENCES * Caldwell, John . 2001. "Canzona". _The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians_, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell . London: Macmillan Publishers. * Grout, Donald Jay . 1960. _A History of Western Music_. New York: W. W. Norton right: 15px; display: none;"> * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Canzona additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Ricercar
A RICERCAR (Italian pronunciation: , also spelled RICERCARE, RECERCAR, RECERCARE) is a type of late Renaissance and mostly early Baroque instrumental composition. The term means to search out, and many ricercars serve a preludial function to "search out" the key or mode of a following piece. A ricercar may explore the permutations of a given motif , and in that regard may follow the piece used as illustration. For example, " Ricercar sopra Benedictus" might develop motifs from a motet titled "Benedictus". The term is also used to designate an etude or study that explores a technical device in playing an instrument, or singing. In its most common contemporary usage, it refers to an early kind of fugue , particularly one of a serious character in which the subject uses long note values . However the term has a considerably more varied historical usage. Subject of Bach's six-part ricercar from his Musical Offering . CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links TERMINOLOGYIn the sixteenth century, the word ricercar could refer to several types of compositions. Terminology was flexible, even lax then: whether a composer called an instrumental piece a toccata , a canzona , a fantasia , or a ricercar was clearly not a matter of strict taxonomy but a rather arbitrary decision
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Renaissance Music
RENAISSANCE MUSIC is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance
Renaissance
era. Consensus among music historians – with notable dissent – has been to start the era around 1400, with the end of the medieval era, and to close it around 1600, with the beginning of the Baroque period, therefore commencing the musical Renaissance
Renaissance
about a hundred years after the beginning of the Renaissance
Renaissance
as it is understood in other disciplines. As in the other arts, the music of the period was significantly influenced by the developments which define the Early Modern
Early Modern
period: the rise of humanistic thought; the recovery of the literary and artistic heritage of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
and Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
; increased innovation and discovery; the growth of commercial enterprises; the rise of a bourgeois class; and the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
. From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular the polyphonic style (this means music with multiple, independent melody lines performed simultaneously) of the Franco-Flemish school, whose greatest master was Josquin des Prez
Josquin des Prez

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Peter Van Der Merwe (musicologist)
PETER VAN DER MERWE was born in Cape Town , South Africa. He is a musicologist , author, and librarian at the Natal Society Library. He has written several books on the history of modern classical music. He studied at the College of Music at the University of Cape Town . He also works as a cataloguer at the municipal library in Pietermaritzburg . BIBLIOGRAPHY * (1989). Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-316121-4 . * (2005) Roots of the Classical: the Popular Origins of Western Music. ISBN 0-19-816647-8 REFERENCES * ^ Frith, Simon (Winter, 1991). "The Good, The Bad, and the Indifferent", Diacritics, p.102, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 101–115. JSTOR.org. AUTHORITY CONTROL * WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 59339231 * ISNI : 0000 0001 1652 2936 * SUDOC : 184510570 * BNF : cb14620759r (data) This article about a South African writer or poet is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peter_van_der_Merwe_(musicologist) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Musical Technique
MUSICAL TECHNIQUE is the ability of instrumental and vocal musicians to exert optimal control of their instruments or vocal cords in order to produce the precise musical effects they desire. Improving one's technique generally entails practicing exercises that improve one's muscular sensitivity and agility. Technique is independent of musicality . To improve their technique, musicians often practice fundamental patterns of notes such as the natural , minor , major , and chromatic scales , minor and major triads , dominant and diminished sevenths , formula patterns and arpeggios . For example, triads and sevenths teach how to play chords with accuracy and speed. Scales teach how to move quickly and gracefully from one note to another (usually by step). Arpeggios teach how to play broken chords over larger intervals. Many of these components of music are found in difficult compositions, for example, a large tuple chromatic scale is a very common element to classical and romantic era compositions as part of the end of a phrase. Heinrich Schenker
Heinrich Schenker
argued that musical technique's "most striking and distinctive characteristic" is repetition . Works known as études (meaning "study") are also frequently used for the improvement of technique
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Art Music
ART MUSIC (also known as WESTERN CLASSICAL MUSIC , CULTIVATED MUSIC, SERIOUS MUSIC, CANONIC MUSIC, and more flippantly, REAL MUSIC or NORMAL MUSIC) is an umbrella term that refers to musical traditions, implying advanced structural and theoretical considerations and a written musical tradition. "Serious" or "cultivated" music are terms frequently used as a contrast for ordinary, everyday music (popular and folk music , also called "vernacular music "). After the 20th century, art music was divided into two extensions: "serious music" and "light music ". CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Popular music
Popular music
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading DEFINITIONThis term is mostly used to refer to music descending from the tradition of Western classical music . Authors associated with critical musicology movement and popular music studies like Philip Tagg tend to reject the elitism associated with art music; he refers to it as one of an "axiomatic triangle consisting of 'folk', 'art' and 'popular' musics." He explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria
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List Of Art Music Traditions
"CLASSICAL MUSIC" and "ART MUSIC " are terms that have been used to refer to music of different cultural origins and traditions. Such traditions often date to a period regarded as the "golden age" of music for a particular culture. The following table lists music styles from throughout the world and the period in history when that tradition was developed: STYLE (ORDERED BY CULTURE) HISTORICAL PERIOD WHEN THE MUSICAL TRADITION WAS DEVELOPED NOTES AFGHAN CLASSICAL MUSIC (KLASIK ) 19th century ANDALUSIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC Caliph of Córdoba
Caliph of Córdoba
AZERBAIJANI MUGHAM ca. 9th - 10th century CAMBODIAN CEREMONIAL MUSIC (PINPEAT) Khmer Empire CHINESE TRADITIONAL MUSIC Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Chinese invented a form of notation called Gongche
Gongche
in the Tang Dynasty . Chinese literature has references to music going back to the Zhou Dynasty , revealing that it both had a ritual function and was prized as an independent art form. While instruments are described and sets of bells have been recovered from archaeological excavations, little is known about how the early music sounded. EUROPEAN CLASSICAL MUSIC Middle Ages to Early modern Europe This is the European tradition of music developed during early modern Europe which is associated with high culture (including works in this tradition in non-European countries)
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Contemporary Classical Music
CONTEMPORARY CLASSICAL MUSIC can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist , postmodern , neoromantic , and pluralist music . However, the term may also be employed in a broader sense to refer to all post-1945 musical forms
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Musical Notation
MUSIC NOTATION or MUSICAL NOTATION is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols, including ancient symbols or modern musical symbols and including ancient symbols cut into stone, made in clay tablets or made using a pen on papyrus , parchment or manuscript paper ; printed using a printing press (ca. 1400s), a computer printer (ca. 1980s) or other printing or modern copying technology . Types and methods of notation have varied between cultures and throughout history, and much information about ancient music notation is fragmentary. Even in the same time period, such as in the 2010s, different styles of music and different cultures use different music notation methods; for example, for professional classical music performers, sheet music using staves and note heads is the most common way of notating music, but for professional country music session musicians , the Nashville Number System is the main method. Although many ancient cultures used symbols to represent melodies and rhythms , none of them were particularly comprehensive, and this has limited today's understanding of their music. The seeds of what would eventually become modern western notation were sown in medieval Europe, starting with the Catholic church
Catholic church
's goal for ecclesiastical uniformity
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