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Muscle Memory
MUSCLE MEMORY has been used synonymously with motor learning , which is a form of procedural memory that involves consolidating a specific motor task into memory through repetition. When a movement is repeated over time, a long-term muscle memory is created for that task, eventually allowing it to be performed without conscious effort. This process decreases the need for attention and creates maximum efficiency within the motor and memory systems. Examples of muscle memory are found in many everyday activities that become automatic and improve with practice, such as riding a bicycle, typing on a keyboard, typing in a PIN , playing a musical instrument, or Poker
Poker
martial arts or even dancing
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Premotor Cortex
The PREMOTOR CORTEX is an area of motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe of the brain just anterior to the primary motor cortex . It occupies part of Brodmann's area 6. It has been studied mainly in primates, including monkeys and humans. The functions of the premotor cortex are diverse and not fully understood. It projects directly to the spinal cord and therefore may play a role in the direct control of behavior, with a relative emphasis on the trunk muscles of the body. It may also play a role in planning movement, in the spatial guidance of movement, in the sensory guidance of movement, in understanding the actions of others, and in using abstract rules to perform specific tasks. Different subregions of the premotor cortex have different properties and presumably emphasize different functions
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Erik Akkersdijk
ERIK AKKERSDIJK (born 7 October 1989 in Enschede , The Netherlands ) is a Dutch Rubik\'s Cube speedsolver . In 2008, he set several Rubik's Cube world records. He started cubing in August 2005. He is globally known as one of the best speedcubers in the world. Akkersdijk graduated as Bachelor of Applied Science on Environmental Science at Saxion University of Applied Sciences in Deventer
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Rubik's Cube
RUBIK\'S CUBE is a 3-D combination puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik . Originally called the MAGIC CUBE, the puzzle was licensed by Rubik to be sold by Ideal Toy Corp. in 1980 via businessman Tibor Laczi and Seven Towns founder Tom Kremer , and won the German Game of the Year special award for Best Puzzle that year. As of January 2009 , 350 million cubes had been sold worldwide making it the world's top-selling puzzle game. It is widely considered to be the world's best-selling toy. On a classic Rubik's Cube, each of the six faces is covered by nine stickers, each of one of six solid colours: white, red, blue, orange, green, and yellow. In currently sold models, white is opposite yellow, blue is opposite green, and orange is opposite red, and the red, white and blue are arranged in that order in a clockwise arrangement. On early cubes, the position of the colours varied from cube to cube
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Speed Cubing
SPEEDCUBING (also known as SPEEDSOLVING) is the activity of solving a variety of twisty puzzles , the most famous being the Rubik\'s Cube , as quickly as possible. For most puzzles, solving entails performing a series of moves that alters a scrambled puzzle into a state in which every face of the puzzle is a single, solid color. Some puzzles have different requirements to be considered solved, such as the Clock , for which all the dials must be moved into the 12 'o clock position. The standard puzzle sizes are 2×2×2 , 3×3×3 , 4×4×4 , 5×5×5 , 6×6×6 , and 7×7×7 , although variations of the puzzle have been designed with as many as 33 layers, albeit not mass-produced for the public. There are also different shapes of the famous puzzles, including Pyraminx , Megaminx , Skewb , and Square-1 . The world record for a single 3x3x3 solve is 4.59 seconds, set by SeungBeom Cho (조승범) at the ChicaGhosts 2017 competition on 28 October
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Fine Motor Skills
FINE MOTOR SKILL (or DEXTERITY) is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers—with the eyes. The complex levels of manual dexterity that humans exhibit can be attributed to and demonstrated in tasks controlled by the nervous system . Fine motor skills aid in the growth of intelligence and develop continuously throughout the stages of human development . CONTENTS * 1 Types of motor skills * 2 Developmental stages * 2.1 Infancy * 2.2 Toddlerhood * 2.3 Preschool * 2.4 School age * 3 Common problems * 4 Assessment * 5 References * 6 External links TYPES OF MOTOR SKILLSMotor skills are movements and actions of the bone structures . Typically, they are categorized into two groups: gross motor skills and fine motor skills. GROSS MOTOR SKILLS are involved in movement and coordination of the arms, legs, and other large body parts and movements
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Motor Cortex
The MOTOR CORTEX is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control , and execution of voluntary movements. Classically the motor cortex is an area of the frontal lobe located in the posterior precentral gyrus immediately anterior to the central sulcus. CONTENTS* 1 Components of the motor cortex * 1.1 The premotor cortex * 1.2 The supplementary motor cortex * 2 History * 3 The motor cortex map * 4 Evolution of the motor cortex * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links COMPONENTS OF THE MOTOR CORTEXThe motor cortex can be divided into three areas: 1. the primary motor cortex is the main contributor to generating neural impulses that pass down to the spinal cord and control the execution of movement. However, some of the other motor areas in the brain also play a role in this function. It is located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface 2
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Synaptogenesis
SYNAPTOGENESIS is the formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system . Although it occurs throughout a healthy person's lifespan , an explosion of synapse formation occurs during early brain development , known as EXUBERANT SYNAPTOGENESIS. Synaptogenesis is particularly important during an individual's critical period , during which there is a certain degree of synaptic pruning due to competition for neural growth factors by neurons and synapses. Processes that are not used, or inhibited during their critical period will fail to develop normally later on in life
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Angiogenesis
ANGIOGENESIS is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. In precise usage this is distinct from vasculogenesis , which is the de novo formation of endothelial cells from mesoderm cell precursors, and from neovascularization , although discussions are not always precise (especially in older texts). The first vessels in the developing embryo form through vasculogenesis, after which angiogenesis is responsible for most, if not all, blood vessel growth during development and in disease. Angiogenesis
Angiogenesis
is a normal and vital process in growth and development, as well as in wound healing and in the formation of granulation tissue . However, it is also a fundamental step in the transition of tumors from a benign state to a malignant one, leading to the use of angiogenesis inhibitors in the treatment of cancer
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Upregulated
In the biological context of organisms ' production of gene products , DOWNREGULATION is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein , in response to an external stimulus. The complementary process that involves increases of such components is called UPREGULATION. An example of downregulation is the cellular decrease in the number of receptors to a molecule, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter , which reduces the cell's sensitivity to the molecule. This is an example of a locally acting (negative feedback) mechanism. An example of upregulation is the response of liver cells exposed to such xenobiotic molecules as dioxin . In this situation, the cells increase their production of cytochrome P450 enzymes , which in turn increases their degradation of these molecules
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Dendritic Spines
A DENDRITIC SPINE (or spine) is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single axon at the synapse . Dendritic spines serve as a storage site for synaptic strength and help transmit electrical signals to the neuron's cell body. Most spines have a bulbous head (the spine head), and a thin neck that connects the head of the spine to the shaft of the dendrite. The dendrites of a single neuron can contain hundreds to thousands of spines. In addition to spines providing an anatomical substrate for memory storage and synaptic transmission, they may also serve to increase the number of possible contacts between neurons
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Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science , an ALGORITHM (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ ( listen ) AL-gə-ridh-əm ) is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems. Algorithms can perform calculation , data processing and automated reasoning tasks. An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function . Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty ), the instructions describe a computation that, when executed , proceeds through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output" and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic ; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms , incorporate random input
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Pocket Cube
The POCKET CUBE (also known as the MINI CUBE or the ICE CUBE) is the 2×2×2 equivalent of a Rubik\'s Cube . The cube consists of 8 pieces, all corners. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Permutations * 3 World Records * 3.1 Top 5 solvers by single solve * 3.2 Top 5 solvers by average of 5 solves * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYIn March 1970, Larry D. Nichols invented a 2×2×2 "Puzzle with Pieces Rotatable in Groups" and filed a Canadian patent application for it. Nichols's cube was held together with magnets. Nichols was granted U.S. Patent 3,655,201 on April 11, 1972, two years before Rubik invented his Cube. Nichols assigned his patent to his employer Moleculon Research Corp., which sued Ideal in 1982. In 1984, Ideal lost the patent infringement suit and appealed. In 1986, the appeals court affirmed the judgment that Rubik's 2×2×2 Pocket Cube infringed Nichols's patent, but overturned the judgment on Rubik's 3×3×3 Cube
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Epilepsy
EPILEPSY is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures . Epileptic seizures are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable to long periods of vigorous shaking. These episodes can result in physical injuries including occasionally broken bones . In epilepsy, seizures tend to recur and as a rule, have no immediate underlying cause. Isolated seizures that are provoked by a specific cause such as poisoning are not deemed to represent epilepsy. People with epilepsy in some areas of the world experience stigma due to the condition. The cause of most cases of epilepsy is unknown. Some cases occur as the result of brain injury , stroke , brain tumors , infections of the brain, and birth defects , through a process known as epileptogenesis . Known genetic mutations are directly linked to a small proportion of cases
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Dysgraphia
DYSGRAPHIA is a deficiency in the ability to write, primarily handwriting , but also coherence. Dysgraphia
Dysgraphia
is a transcription disability, meaning that it is a writing disorder associated with impaired handwriting, orthographic coding (orthography , the storing process of written words and processing the letters in those words), and finger sequencing (the movement of muscles required to write). It often overlaps with other learning disabilities such as speech impairment , attention deficit disorder , or developmental coordination disorder . In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), dysgraphia is characterized as a learning disability in the category of written expression when one’s writing skills are below those expected given a person’s age measured through intelligence and age-appropriate education
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Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
The WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE (WAIS) is an IQ test
IQ test
designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents. The original WAIS (Form I) was published in February 1955 by David Wechsler , as a revision of the Wechsler–Bellevue Intelligence Scale, released in 1939. It is currently in its fourth edition (WAIS-IV) released in 2008 by Pearson , and is the most widely used IQ test, for both adults and older adolescents, in the world. Data collection for the next version (WAIS 5) began in 2016 and is projected to be complete in 2019
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