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Multiplication MULTIPLICATION (often denoted by the cross symbol " × ", by a point "⋅ ", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic ; with the others being addition , subtraction and division . The multiplication of whole numbers may be thought as a repeated addition ; that is, the multiplication of two numbers is equivalent to adding as many copies of one of them, the multiplicand, as the value of the other one, the multiplier. Normally, the multiplier is written first and multiplicand second, though this can vary, especially in languages with different grammatical structures, such as Japanese , Japanese elementary schools teach writing the multiplicand first, and answers that reverse that order are marked as incorrect [...More...]  "Multiplication" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Japanese Language JAPANESE (日本語, Nihongo, or ( listen )) is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan Japan , where it is the national language . It is a member of the Japonic (or JapaneseRyukyuan ) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean , is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu , Austroasiatic , and the nowdiscredited Altaic , but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period (794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese [...More...]  "Japanese Language" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Computer Programming COMPUTER PROGRAMMING (often shortened to PROGRAMMING) is a process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs . Programming involves activities such as analysis, developing understanding, generating algorithms , verification of requirements of algorithms including their correctness and resources consumption, and implementation (commonly referred to as CODING ) of algorithms in a target programming language . Source code is written in one or more programming languages. The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate performing a specific task or solving a given problem. The process of programming thus often requires expertise in many different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain , specialized algorithms, and formal logic [...More...]  "Computer Programming" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

United Kingdom The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the northwestern coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain Great Britain , the northeastern part of the island of Ireland Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland Ireland . Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea North Sea to its east, the English Channel English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its southsouthwest, giving it the 12thlongest coastline in the world [...More...]  "United Kingdom" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

United States Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; 100 United States United States of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum [...More...]  "United States" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Mathematical Notation MATHEMATICAL NOTATION is a system of symbolic representations of mathematical objects and ideas. Mathematical notations are used in mathematics , the physical sciences , engineering , and economics . Mathematical notations include relatively simple symbolic representations, such as the numbers 0, 1 and 2, function symbols such as sin , operator symbols such as + ; conceptual symbols such as lim and dy/dx ; equations and variables ; and complex diagrammatic notations such as Penrose graphical notation and Coxeter–Dynkin diagrams [...More...]  "Mathematical Notation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Infix Notation Infix Infix notation Prefix notation ("Polish") * v * t * e INFIX NOTATION is the notation commonly used in arithmetical and logical formulae and statements. It is characterized by the placement of operators between operands —"infixed operators"—such as the plus sign in 2 + 2. CONTENTS * 1 Usage * 2 Order of operations * 3 Further notations * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links USAGE Infix Infix notation is more difficult to parse by computers than prefix notation (e.g. + 2 2) or postfix notation (e.g. 2 2 +). However many programming languages use it due to its familiarity. It is more used in arithmetic, e.g. 5 × 6. ORDER OF OPERATIONSIn infix notation, unlike in prefix or postfix notations, parentheses surrounding groups of operands and operators are necessary to indicate the intended order in which operations are to be performed [...More...]  "Infix Notation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Length In geometric measurements, LENGTH is the most extended dimension of an object. In the International System of Quantities , length is any quantity with dimension distance. In other contexts "length" is the measured dimension of an object. For example, it is possible to cut a length of a wire which is shorter than wire thickness. Length Length may be distinguished from height , which is vertical extent, and width or breadth, which are the distance from side to side, measuring across the object at right angles to the length. Length Length is a measure of one dimension, whereas area is a measure of two dimensions (length squared) and volume is a measure of three dimensions (length cubed). In most systems of measurement , the unit of length is a base unit , from which other units are derived. The metric length of one kilometre is equivalent to the imperial measurement of 0.62137 miles [...More...]  "Length" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Rectangle In Euclidean plane geometry , a RECTANGLE is a quadrilateral with four right angles . It can also be defined as an equiangular quadrilateral, since equiangular means that all of its angles are equal (360°/4 = 90°). It can also be defined as a parallelogram containing a right angle. A rectangle with four sides of equal length is a square . The term OBLONG is occasionally used to refer to a nonsquare rectangle. A rectangle with vertices ABCD would be denoted as ABCD. The word rectangle comes from the Latin Latin rectangulus, which is a combination of rectus (as an adjective, right, proper) and angulus (angle ). A CROSSED RECTANGLE is a crossed (selfintersecting) quadrilateral which consists of two opposite sides of a rectangle along with the two diagonals. It is a special case of an antiparallelogram , and its angles are not right angles [...More...]  "Rectangle" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Decimal Separator A DECIMAL MARK is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form. Different countries officially designate different symbols for the decimal mark. The choice of symbol for the decimal mark also affects the choice of symbol for the thousands separator used in digit grouping, so the latter is also treated in this article. In mathematics the decimal mark is a type of radix point , a term that also applies to number systems with bases other than ten [...More...]  "Decimal Separator" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Character Set In computing, a CHARACTER ENCODING is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system. Depending on the abstraction level and context, corresponding code points and the resulting code space may be regarded as bit patterns , octets , natural numbers , electrical pulses , etc. A character encoding is used in computation , data storage , and transmission of textual data . "Character set", "character map", "codeset" and "code page " are related, but not identical, terms. Early character codes associated with the optical or electrical telegraph could only represent a subset of the characters used in written languages, sometimes restricted to upper case letters, numerals and some punctuation only. The low cost of digital representation of data in modern computer systems allows more elaborate character codes (such as Unicode Unicode ) which represent most of the characters used in many written languages [...More...]  "Character Set" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

ASCII ASCII ASCII (/ˈæski/ ( listen ) ASSkee ), :6 abbreviated from AMERICAN STANDARD CODE FOR INFORMATION INTERCHANGE, is a character encoding standard (the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) prefers the name US ASCII ASCII ). ASCII ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment , and other devices. Most modern characterencoding schemes are based on ASCII, although they support many additional characters. ASCII ASCII chart from a 1972 printer manual (b1 is the least significant bit) [...More...]  "ASCII" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Scale Factor A SCALE FACTOR is a number which scales , or multiplies, some quantity. In the equation y = Cx, C is the scale factor for x. C is also the coefficient of x, and may be called the constant of proportionality of y to x. For example, doubling distances corresponds to a scale factor of two for distance, while cutting a cake in half results in pieces with a scale factor of one half. The basic equation for it is image over preimage. In the field of measurements, the scale factor of an instrument is sometimes referred to as sensitivity. The ratio of any two corresponding lengths in two similar geometric figures is also called a scale factor [...More...]  "Scale Factor" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Marble (toy) A MARBLE is a small spherical toy often made from glass , clay , steel , plastic or agate . These balls vary in size. Most commonly, they are about 1 cm (1⁄2 in) in diameter, but they may range from less than 1 mm (1⁄30 in) to over 8 cm (3 in), while some art glass marbles for display purposes are over 30 cm (12 in) wide. Marbles can be used for a variety of games called MARBLES. They are often collected , both for nostalgia and for their aesthetic colors. In the North of England the objects and the game are called "taws", with larger taws being called bottle washers after the use of a marble in Coddneck bottles [...More...]  "Marble (toy)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Fortran FORTRAN (formerly FORTRAN, derived from "Formula Translation" ) is a generalpurpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing . Originally developed by IBM in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, Fortran came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continuous use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction , finite element analysis , computational fluid dynamics , computational physics , crystallography and computational chemistry . It is a popular language for highperformance computing and is used for programs that benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers . Fortran encompasses a lineage of versions, each of which evolved to add extensions to the language while usually retaining compatibility with prior versions [...More...]  "Fortran" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Variable (mathematics) In elementary mathematics , a VARIABLE is an alphabetic character representing a number, called the value of the variable, which is either arbitrary, not fully specified, or unknown. Making algebraic computations with variables as if they were explicit numbers allows one to solve a range of problems in a single computation. A typical example is the quadratic formula , which allows one to solve every quadratic equation by simply substituting the numeric values of the coefficients of the given equation to the variables that represent them. The concept of a variable is also fundamental in calculus . Typically, a function y = f(x) involves two variables, y and x, representing respectively the value and the argument of the function. The term "variable" comes from the fact that, when the argument (also called the "variable of the function") varies, then the value varies accordingly [...More...]  "Variable (mathematics)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 