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Multiple-effect Distillation
Multiple-effect distillation
Multiple-effect distillation
(MED) is a distillation process often used for sea water desalination. It consists of multiple stages or "effects". In each stage the feed water is heated by steam in tubes, usually by spraying saline water onto them. Some of the water evaporates, and this steam flows into the tubes of the next stage (effect), heating and evaporating more water. Each stage essentially reuses the energy from the previous stage, with successively lower temperatures and pressures after each one. Additionally, between stages this steam uses some heat to preheat incoming saline water.[1]Contents1 Operating principles 2 Trade-offs 3 Advantages 4 Disadvantages 5 See also 6 ReferencesOperating principles[edit]Schematic of a multiple effect desalination plant. The first stage is at the top. Pink areas are vapor, lighter blue areas are liquid feed water. Stronger turquoise is condensate
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Water Desalination
Desalination
Desalination
is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance,[1] as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture.[2] Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One by-product of desalination is salt. Desalination
Desalination
is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources.[3] Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation. However, these alternatives are not always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide
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Methane Hydrate
Methane
Methane
clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.[1] Originally thought to occur only in the outer regions of the Solar System, where temperatures are low and water ice is common, significant deposits of methane clathrate have been found under sediments on the ocean floors of the Earth.[2] Methane
Methane
clathrates are common constituents of the shallow marine geosphere and they occur in deep sedimentary structures and form outcrops on the ocean floor
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Multiple-effect Evaporator
A multiple-effect evaporator, as defined in chemical engineering, is an apparatus for efficiently using the heat from steam to evaporate water.[1] In a multiple-effect evaporator, water is boiled in a sequence of vessels, each held at a lower pressure than the last. Because the boiling temperature of water decreases as pressure decreases, the vapor boiled off in one vessel can be used to heat the next, and only the first vessel (at the highest pressure) requires an external source of heat. While in theory, evaporators may be built with an arbitrarily large number of stages, evaporators with more than four stages are rarely practical except in systems where the liquor is the desired product such as in chemical recovery systems where up to seven effects are used. The multiple-effect evaporator was invented by an African-American inventor and engineer Norbert Rillieux
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Waste Heat
Waste
Waste
heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work. All such processes give off some waste heat as a fundamental result of the laws of thermodynamics. Waste
Waste
heat has lower utility (or in thermodynamics lexicon a lower exergy or higher entropy) than the original energy source
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Operating Temperature
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates. The device will operate effectively within a specified temperature range which varies based on the device function and application context, and ranges from the minimum operating temperature to the maximum operating temperature (or peak operating temperature). Outside this range of safe operating temperatures the device may fail. Aerospace and military-grade devices generally operate over a broader temperature range than industrial devices; commercial-grade[clarification needed] devices generally have the narrowest operating temperature range. It is one component of reliability engineering. Similarly, biological systems have a viable temperature range, which might be referred to as an "operating temperature".Contents1 Ranges 2 Aerospace and military 3 Commercial and retail 4 Biology 5 Notes 6 ReferencesRanges[edit] Most devices are manufactured in several temperature grades
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Desalination
Desalination
Desalination
is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance,[1] as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture.[2] Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One by-product of desalination is salt. Desalination
Desalination
is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources.[3] Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation. However, these alternatives are not always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide
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Sea Water
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L, 599 mM). This means that every kilogram (roughly one litre by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) of dissolved salts (predominantly sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) ions). Average density at the surface is 1.025 kg/L. Seawater
Seawater
is denser than both fresh water and pure water (density 1.0 kg/L at 4 °C (39 °F)) because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume. The freezing point of seawater decreases as salt concentration increases
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Distillation
Distillation
Distillation
is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation. Distillation
Distillation
may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of the mixture. In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not a chemical reaction. Distillation
Distillation
has many applications
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Wave-powered Desalination
Desalination
Desalination
is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance,[1] as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture.[2] Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One by-product of desalination is salt. Desalination
Desalination
is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources.[3] Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation. However, these alternatives are not always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide
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Seawater Greenhouse
A seawater greenhouse is a greenhouse structure that enables the growth of crops in arid regions, using seawater and solar energy. The technique involves pumping seawater (or allowing it to gravitate if below sea level) to an arid location and then subjecting it to two processes: first, it is used to humidify and cool the air, and second, it is evaporated by solar heating and distilled to produce fresh water. Finally, the remaining humidified air is expelled from the greenhouse and used to improve growing conditions for outdoor plants. The technology was introduced by British inventor Charlie Paton in the early 1990s and is being developed by his UK company Seawater Greenhouse
Greenhouse
Ltd. The more concentrated salt water may either be further evaporated for the production of salt and other elements, or discharged back to the sea
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Water Recycling
Reclaimed or recycled water (also called wastewater reuse or water reclamation) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes. Reuse
Reuse
may include irrigation of gardens and agricultural fields or replenishing surface water and groundwater (i.e., groundwater recharge). Reused water may also be directed toward fulfilling certain needs in residences (e.g. toilet flushing), businesses, and industry, and could even be treated to reach drinking water standards. This last option is called either "direct potable reuse" or "indirect potable" reuse, depending on the approach used. Colloquially, the term "toilet to tap" also refers to potable reuse. Reclaiming water for reuse applications instead of using freshwater supplies can be a water-saving measure
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Multiple-effect Humidification
Multiple-effect humidification (MEH) is a method used for thermal desalination of sea water. It uses multiple evaporation–condensation cycles at separate temperature levels to minimize the total energy consumption of solar humidification processes.[1] References[edit]^ Müller-Holst, Hendrik (2002). "Multiple Effect Humidification Dehumidification at ambient pressure: Optimisation and applications" (in German and English). Technical University of Munich. Retrieved October 25, 2012. This water supply–related article is a stub
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Multi-stage Flash Distillation
Multi-stage flash distillation
Multi-stage flash distillation
(MSF) is a water desalination process that distills sea water by flashing a portion of the water into steam in multiple stages of what are essentially countercurrent heat exchangers. Multi-stage flash distillation
Multi-stage flash distillation
plants produce about 60% of all desalinated water in the world.[1]Contents1 Principle 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksPrinciple[edit]Schematic of a 'once-through' multi-stage flash desalinator A - Steam in B - Seawater in C - Potable water out D - Waste out E - Steam out F - Heat exchange G - Condensation
Condensation
collection H - Brine
Brine
heaterMSF Desalination Plant at Jebel Ali G Station, DubaiThe plant has a series of spaces called stages, each containing a heat exchanger and a condensate collector
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