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Multiple-effect Distillation
MULTIPLE-EFFECT DISTILLATION (MED) is a distillation process often used for sea water desalination . It consists of multiple stages or "effects". In each stage the feed water is heated by steam in tubes, usually by spraying saline water onto them. Some of the water evaporates, and this steam flows into the tubes of the next stage (effect), heating and evaporating more water. Each stage essentially reuses the energy from the previous stage, with successively lower temperatures and pressures after each one. Additionally, between stages this steam uses some heat to preheat incoming saline water. CONTENTS * 1 Operating principles * 2 Trade-offs * 3 Advantages * 4 Disadvantages * 5 See also * 6 References OPERATING PRINCIPLES Schematic of a multiple effect desalination plant. The first stage is at the top. Pink areas are vapor, lighter blue areas are liquid feed water. Stronger turquoise is condensate
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Operating Temperature
An OPERATING TEMPERATURE is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates. The device will operate effectively within a specified temperature range which varies based on the device function and application context, and ranges from the MINIMUM OPERATING TEMPERATURE to the MAXIMUM OPERATING TEMPERATURE (or PEAK OPERATING TEMPERATURE). Outside this range of SAFE OPERATING TEMPERATURES the device may fail. Aerospace and military-grade devices generally operate over a broader temperature range than industrial devices; commercial-grade devices generally have the narrowest operating temperature range. It is one component of reliability engineering . Similarly, biological systems have a viable temperature range, which might be referred to as an "operating temperature". CONTENTS * 1 Ranges * 2 Aerospace and military * 3 Commercial and retail * 4 Biology * 5 Notes * 6 References RANGESMost devices are manufactured in several temperature grades
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Multiple-effect Evaporator
A MULTIPLE-EFFECT EVAPORATOR, as defined in chemical engineering , is an apparatus for efficiently using the heat from steam to evaporate water. In a multiple-effect evaporator, water is boiled in a sequence of vessels, each held at a lower pressure than the last. Because the boiling temperature of water decreases as pressure decreases, the vapor boiled off in one vessel can be used to heat the next, and only the first vessel (at the highest pressure) requires an external source of heat. While in theory, evaporators may be built with an arbitrarily large number of stages, evaporators with more than four stages are rarely practical except in systems where the liquor is the desired product such as in chemical recovery systems where up to seven effects are used. The multiple-effect evaporator was invented by an African-American inventor and engineer Norbert Rillieux
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Sea Water
SEAWATER, or SALT WATER, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L, 599 mM) This means that every kilogram (roughly one litre by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) of dissolved salts (predominantly sodium (Na+ ) and chloride (Cl− ) ions ). Average density at the surface is 1.025 kg/L. Seawater
Seawater
is denser than both fresh water and pure water (density 1.0 kg/L at 4 °C (39 °F)) because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume. The freezing point of seawater decreases as salt concentration increases. At typical salinity, it freezes at about −2 °C (28 °F). The coldest seawater ever recorded (in a liquid state) was in 2010, in a stream under an Antarctic
Antarctic
glacier , and measured −2.6 °C (27.3 °F). Seawater
Seawater
pH is typically limited to a range between 7.5 and 8.4
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Methane Hydrate
METHANE CLATHRATE (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called METHANE HYDRATE, HYDROMETHANE, METHANE ICE, FIRE ICE, NATURAL GAS HYDRATE, or GAS HYDRATE, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate ) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice . Originally thought to occur only in the outer regions of the Solar System
Solar System
, where temperatures are low and water ice is common, significant deposits of methane clathrate have been found under sediments on the ocean floors of the Earth
Earth
. Methane
Methane
clathrates are common constituents of the shallow marine geosphere and they occur in deep sedimentary structures and form outcrops on the ocean floor
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Water Recycling
RECLAIMED or RECYCLED WATER (also called WASTEWATER REUSE or WATER RECLAMATION) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes. Reuse may include irrigation of gardens and agricultural fields or replenishing surface water and groundwater (i.e., groundwater recharge ). Reused water may also be directed toward fulfilling certain needs in residences (e.g. toilet flushing), businesses, and industry, and could even be treated to reach drinking water standards. This last option is called either "direct potable reuse" or "indirect potable" reuse, depending on the approach used. Colloquially, the term "toilet to tap" also refers to potable reuse. Reclaiming water for reuse applications instead of using freshwater supplies can be a water-saving measure
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Distillation
DISTILLATION is the process of separating the component or substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation . Distillation
Distillation
may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of the mixture. In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry , distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not a chemical reaction . Commercially, distillation has many applications
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the ISO
ISO
. An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata
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Membrane Technology
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY covers all engineering approaches for the transport of substances between two fractions with the help of permeable membranes . In general, mechanical separation processes for separating gaseous or liquid streams use membrane technology. CONTENTS * 1 Applications * 2 Mass transfer * 2.1 Solution-diffusion model * 2.2 Hydrodynamic model * 3 Membrane operations * 4 Membrane shapes and flow geometries * 5 Membrane performance and governing equations * 6 Membrane separation processes * 7 Pore size and selectivity * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References APPLICATIONS Ultrafiltration for a swimming pool Venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation scheme Membrane separation processes operate without heating and therefore use less energy than conventional thermal separation processes such as distillation , sublimation or crystallization
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Multi-stage Flash Distillation
MULTI-STAGE FLASH DISTILLATION (MSF) is a water desalination process that distills sea water by flashing a portion of the water into steam in multiple stages of what are essentially countercurrent heat exchangers . Multi-stage flash distillation
Multi-stage flash distillation
plants produce about 60% of all desalinated water in the world CONTENTS * 1 Principle * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links PRINCIPLE Schematic of a 'once-through' multi-stage flash desalinator A - Steam in B - Seawater in C - Potable water out D - Waste out E - Steam out F - Heat exchange G - Condensation
Condensation
collection H - Brine
Brine
heater MSF Desalination Plant at Jebel Ali G Station, Dubai The plant has a series of spaces called stages, each containing a heat exchanger and a condensate collector
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Vapor-compression Desalination
VAPOR-COMPRESSION DESALINATION (VC) refers to a distillation process where the evaporation of sea or saline water is obtained by the application of heat delivered by compressed vapor. OVERVIEWSince compression of the vapor increases both the pressure and temperature of the vapor, it is possible to use the latent heat rejected during condensation to generate additional vapor. The effect of compressing water vapor can be done by two methods. The first method utilizes an ejector system motivated by steam at manometric pressure from an external source in order to recycle vapor from the desalination process. The form is designated ejectocompression or thermocompression. Using the second method, water vapor is compressed by means of a mechanical device, electrically driven in most cases. This form is designated mechanical vapor compression (MVC). The MVC process comprises two different versions: vapor compression (VC) and vacuum vapor compression (VVC)
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Seawater Greenhouse
A SEAWATER GREENHOUSE is a greenhouse structure that enables the growth of crops in arid regions, using seawater and solar energy . The technique involves pumping seawater (or allowing it to gravitate if below sea level) to an arid location and then subjecting it to two processes: first, it is used to humidify and cool the air, and second, it is evaporated by solar heating and distilled to produce fresh water . Finally, the remaining humidified air is expelled from the greenhouse and used to improve growing conditions for outdoor plants. The technology was introduced by British inventor Charlie Paton in the early 1990s and is being developed by his UK company Seawater Greenhouse
Greenhouse
Ltd. The more concentrated salt water may either be further evaporated for the production of salt and other elements, or discharged back to the sea. The seawater greenhouse is a response to the global water crisis and peak water
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Multiple-effect Humidification
MULTIPLE-EFFECT HUMIDIFICATION (MEH) is a method used for thermal desalination of sea water . It uses multiple evaporation –condensation cycles at separate temperature levels to minimize the total energy consumption of solar humidification processes. REFERENCES * ^ Müller-Holst, Hendrik (2002). "Multiple Effect Humidification Dehumidification at ambient pressure: Optimisation and applications" (in German and English). Technical University of Munich. Retrieved October 25, 2012. This water supply –related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Ion Exchange
ION EXCHANGE is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex . In most cases the term is used to denote the processes of purification, separation, and decontamination of aqueous and other ion-containing solutions with solid polymeric or mineralic "ion exchangers". Typical ion exchangers are ion-exchange resins (functionalized porous or gel polymer), zeolites , montmorillonite , clay , and soil humus . Ion
Ion
exchangers are either CATION EXCHANGERS, which exchange positively charged ions (cations ), or ANION EXCHANGERS, which exchange negatively charged ions (anions ). There are also AMPHOTERIC EXCHANGERS that are able to exchange both cations and anions simultaneously
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Electrodialysis Reversal
ELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSAL (EDR) is an electrodialysis reversal water desalination membrane process that has been commercially used since the early 1960s. An electric current migrates dissolved salt ions , including fluorides , nitrates and sulfates , through an electrodialysis stack consisting of alternating layers of cationic and anionic ion exchange membranes. Periodically, the direction of ion flow is reversed by reversing the polarity of the applied electric current. SEE ALSO * Reversed electrodialysis (RED) * Osmotic power
Osmotic power
REFERENCES * ^ A B Katz, William E. (January 1979). "The electrodialysis reversal (EDR) process". Desalination. 28 (1): 31–40. doi :10.1016/S0011-9164(00)88124-2 . Retrieved 2015
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