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Multinational Corporation
A MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION or WORLDWIDE ENTERPRISE is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in two or more countries other than their home country. CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Overview * 3 Theoretical background * 4 Transnational corporations * 5 Multinational enterprise * 6 Multinational corporation
Multinational corporation
and colonialism * 7 Criticism of multinationals * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links NAMESA multinational corporation can also be referred to as an MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISE (MNE), a INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, a TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATION, or a STATELESS CORPORATION. There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as those labels of MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION and a WORLDWIDE ENTERPRISE
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Colonialism
COLONIALISM is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories. Colonialism
Colonialism
involves unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous peoples . The European colonial period was the era from the 16th century to the mid-20th century when several European powers established colonies in Asia
Asia
, Africa
Africa
, and the Americas . At first the countries followed a policy of mercantilism , designed to strengthen the home economy at the expense of rivals, so the colonies were usually allowed to trade only with the mother country. By the mid-19th century, however, the powerful British Empire
British Empire
gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and introduced the principle of free trade , with few restrictions or tariffs
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Trading Posts
A TRADING POST, TRADING STATION, or TRADING HOUSE was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place; the term is generally used, in modern parlance, in reference to such establishments in historic Northern America , although the practice long predates that continent's colonization by Europeans. The preferred travel route to a trading post or between trading posts, was known as a trade route . Trading posts were also places for people to meet and exchange the news of the world or simply the news from their home country (many of the world's trading posts were located in places which were popular destinations for emigration) in a time when not even newspapers existed
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South Australia Company
The SOUTH AUSTRALIAN COMPANY was formed in London
London
on 9 October 1835 by George Fife Angas and other wealthy British merchants to develop a new settlement in South Australia
South Australia
; its purpose was to build a new colony . The South Australian Company
South Australian Company
ended business in its own right on 17 March 1949 when it was liquidated Elders Trustee Raikes Currie ; Charles Hindley M.P.; James Hyde; Henry Kingscote; John Pirie , Alderman; Christopher Rawson; John Rundle M.P.; Thomas Smith; James Ruddell Todd; and Henry Waymouth ; with Edmund John Wheeler, Manager; Samuel Stephens , Colonial Manager; and Edward Hill, Secretary pro tem. ARRIVALS OF 1836In January 1836 four ships sailed from England on behalf of the Company
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Virginia Company
The VIRGINIA COMPANY refers collectively to two joint stock companies chartered by James I on 10 April 1606 with the goal of establishing settlements on the coast of North America. The companies were called the " Virginia
Virginia
Company of London" (or the London Company
London Company
) and the " Virginia
Virginia
Company of Plymouth" (or the Plymouth Company ); they operated with identical charters but with differing territories. An area of overlapping territory was created within which the two companies were not permitted to establish colonies within one hundred miles of each other. The Plymouth Company never fulfilled its charter, but its territory was claimed by England and became New England. As corporations, the companies were empowered by the Crown to govern themselves, and they conferred that right onto their colonies
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Hudson’s Bay Company
The HUDSON\'S BAY COMPANY (HBC; French: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson), commonly referred to as THE BAY (La Baie in French), is a Canadian retail business group. A fur trading business for much of its existence, HBC now owns and operates retail stores in Canada, the United States and parts of Europe, including Belgium and Germany. The company's namesake business division is Hudson\'s Bay , and other divisions include Galeria Kaufhof , Gilt , Home Outfitters , Lord the retail era had begun as the HBC began establishing stores across the country. In July 2008, HBC was acquired by NRDC Equity Partners , which also owns the upmarket American department store Lord & Taylor . From 2008 to 2012, the HBC was run through a holding company of NRDC, Hudson\'s Bay Trading Company , which was dissolved on 23 January 2012
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Swedish Africa Company
The SWEDISH AFRICA COMPANY (Swedish : Svenska Afrikanska Kompaniet) was a Swedish trading company, founded in 1649 on the initiative of the Walloon -Dutch merchant Louis De Geer and his son Laurens, for whom Sweden
Sweden
had become their second home. The primary interest of the company was the trade on the Swedish Gold
Gold
Coast . The establishment of the pseudo Swedish Africa Company
Swedish Africa Company
caused much astonishment in the Amsterdam city council . HISTORYIn 1648 De Geer's charter on exporting Swedish copper ended. Along with his son Laurens, and with a royal charter of Christina I of Sweden
Sweden
he founded the Swedish Africa Company, but moved its base from Gothenburg
Gothenburg
to Stade
Stade

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Tax Avoidance
TAX AVOIDANCE is the legal usage of the tax regime in a single territory to one's own advantage to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law. Tax
Tax
sheltering is very similar, although unlike tax avoidance tax sheltering is not necessarily legal. Tax
Tax
havens are jurisdictions which facilitate reduced taxes. While forms of tax avoidance which use tax laws in ways not intended by governments may be considered legal, it is almost never considered moral in the court of public opinion and rarely in journalism . Many corporations and businesses which take part in the practice experience a backlash, either from their active customers or online
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History Of Colonialism
The historical phenomenon of colonisation is one that stretches around the globe and across time. Modern state global colonialism, or imperialism , began in the 15th century with the " Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
", led by Portuguese and Spanish exploration of the Americas
Americas
, the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India and East Asia
East Asia
. The Spanish and Portuguese empires were the first global empires because they were the first to stretch across different continents, covering vast territories around the globe. The phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets " was first used for the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
in the 16th century. During the late 16th and 17th centuries, England
England
, France
France
and the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
also established their own overseas empires, in direct competition with each other
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New Imperialism
In historical contexts, NEW IMPERIALISM characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers , the United States
United States
, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The period featured an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions. At the time, states focused on building their empires with new technological advances and developments, making their territory bigger through conquest, and exploiting their resources. During the era of New Imperialism, the Western powers (and Japan) individually conquered almost all of Africa
Africa
and parts of Asia. The new wave of imperialism reflected ongoing rivalries among the great powers , the economic desire for new resources and markets, and a "civilizing mission " ethos. Many of the colonies established during this era gained independence during the era of decolonization that followed World War II
World War II

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British East India Company
The EAST INDIA COMPANY (EIC), also known as the HONOURABLE EAST INDIA COMPANY (HEIC) or the BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY and informally as JOHN COMPANY, was an English and later British joint-stock company , which was formed to pursue trade with the " East Indies
East Indies
" (or Maritime Southeast Asia in present-day terms) but ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and Qing China
Qing China
. The historian William Dalrymple says: It was not the British government that seized India at the end of the 18th century, but a dangerously unregulated private company headquartered in one small office, five windows wide, in London, and managed in India by an unstable sociopath – Clive
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Colonization
COLONIZATION (or COLONISATION) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components. The term is derived from the Latin word colere, which means "to inhabit". Also, colonization refers strictly to migration, for example, to settler colonies in America or Australia, trading posts , and plantations , while colonialism deals with this, along with ruling the existing indigenous peoples of styled "new territories". Colonization
Colonization
was linked to the spread of tens of millions from Western European states all over the world. In many settled colonies, Western European settlers formed a large majority of the population. Examples include the Americas, Australia and New Zealand. These colonies were occasionally called 'neo-Europes'. In other places, Western European settlers formed minority groups, who were often dominant in their places of settlement
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Colonies
In politics and history , a COLONY is a territory under the immediate political control of a state , distinct from the home territory of the sovereign. For colonies in antiquity , city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception. The METROPOLITAN STATE is the state that rules the colony. In Ancient Greece , the city that founded a colony was known as the metropolis . "Mother country" is a reference to the metropolitan state from the point of view of citizens who live in its colony. There is a United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories . Unlike a puppet state or satellite state , a colony has no independent international representation, and its top-level administration is under direct control of the metropolitan state
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Mozambique Company
The MOZAMBIQUE COMPANY (Portuguese : Companhia de Moçambique) was a royal company operating in Portuguese Mozambique that had the concession of the lands in the Portuguese colony corresponding to the present provinces of Manica and Sofala in central Mozambique. The company was established the 11 February 1891 with a capital stock of about 5 million dollars obtained from financiers from Germany
Germany
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and South Africa
South Africa
. Isaacman and Isaacman report that the firm was capitalised at 40,000 pounds, and that British and French capital quickly predominated. The concession was granted for a period of 50 years, during which the company could not only exploit the resources and existing manpower (partly through the chibalo system of forced labour) but also grant subconcessions
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Income Inequality
ECONOMIC INEQUALITY is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries . Economic inequality
Economic inequality
sometimes refers to INCOME INEQUALITY , WEALTH INEQUALITY , or the WEALTH GAP. Economists generally focus on economic disparity in three metrics: wealth , income , and consumption . The issue of economic inequality is relevant to notions of equity , equality of outcome , and equality of opportunity . Economic inequality
Economic inequality
varies between societies, historical periods, economic structures and systems. The term can refer to cross-sectional distribution of income or wealth at any particular period, or to changes of income and wealth over longer periods of time. There are various numerical indices for measuring economic inequality
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Barrick Gold
BARRICK GOLD CORPORATION is the largest gold mining company in the world, with its headquarters in Toronto
Toronto
, Canada
Canada
. The company has mining operations in Argentina
Argentina
, Australia
Australia
, Canada
Canada
, Chile
Chile
, the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
, Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, Peru
Peru
,