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Multi-stage Flash Distillation
MULTI-STAGE FLASH DISTILLATION (MSF) is a water desalination process that distills sea water by flashing a portion of the water into steam in multiple stages of what are essentially countercurrent heat exchangers . Multi-stage flash distillation
Multi-stage flash distillation
plants produce about 60% of all desalinated water in the world CONTENTS * 1 Principle * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links PRINCIPLE Schematic of a 'once-through' multi-stage flash desalinator A - Steam in B - Seawater in C - Potable water out D - Waste out E - Steam out F - Heat exchange G - Condensation
Condensation
collection H - Brine
Brine
heater MSF Desalination Plant at Jebel Ali G Station, Dubai The plant has a series of spaces called stages, each containing a heat exchanger and a condensate collector
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Boiling Point
The BOILING POINT of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental pressure. A liquid in a partial vacuum has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure . A liquid at high pressure has a higher boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. For a given pressure, different liquids boil at different temperatures. For example, water boils at 100 °C (212 °F) at sea level, but at 93.4 °C (200.1 °F) at 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) altitude. The NORMAL BOILING POINT (also called the ATMOSPHERIC BOILING POINT or the ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE BOILING POINT) of a liquid is the special case in which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the defined atmospheric pressure at sea level, 1 atmosphere
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Brine
BRINE is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride ) in water . In different contexts, brine may refer to salt solutions ranging from about 3.5% (a typical concentration of seawater , on the lower end of solutions used for brining foods) up to about 26% (a typical saturated solution, depending on temperature). Lower levels of concentration are called by different names: fresh water , brackish water and saline water . Brine
Brine
naturally occurs on Earth's surface (salt lakes ), crust, and within brine pools on ocean bottom. High-concentration brine lakes typically emerge due to evaporation of ground saline water on high ambient temperatures. Brine
Brine
is used for food processing and cooking (pickling and brining ), for de-icing of roads and other structures, and in a number of technological processes
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Steady State
In systems theory , a system or a process is in a STEADY STATE if the variables (called state variables ) which define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time. In continuous time , this means that for those properties p of the system, the partial derivative with respect to time is zero and remains so: p t = 0 for all t . {displaystyle {frac {partial p}{partial t}}=0quad {text{for all }}t.} In discrete time , it means that the first difference of each property is zero and remains so: p t p t 1 = 0 for all t . {displaystyle p_{t}-p_{t-1}=0quad {text{for all }}t.} The concept of a steady state has relevance in many fields, in particular thermodynamics , economics , and engineering . If a system is in a steady state, then the recently observed behavior of the system will continue into the future. In stochastic systems, the probabilities that various states will be repeated will remain constant
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Pressure
PRESSURE (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre ; similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi ) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and US customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure ; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as  1⁄760 of this. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water , millimetre of mercury , and inch of mercury are used to express pressures in terms of the height of column of a particular fluid in a manometer
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Condensation
CONDENSATION is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase , and is the reverse of evaporation . The word most often refers to the water cycle . It can also be defined as the change in the state of water vapour to liquid water when in contact with a liquid or solid surface or cloud condensation nuclei within the atmosphere . When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly, the change is called deposition (or desublimation, see Sublimation (phase transition)
Sublimation (phase transition)

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Heat Exchanger
A HEAT EXCHANGER is a device used to transfer heat between a solid object and a fluid , or between two or more fluids. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating , refrigeration , air conditioning , power stations , chemical plants , petrochemical plants , petroleum refineries , natural-gas processing , and sewage treatment . The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air . Another example is the heat sink , which is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant
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Water Recycling
RECLAIMED or RECYCLED WATER (also called WASTEWATER REUSE or WATER RECLAMATION) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes. Reuse may include irrigation of gardens and agricultural fields or replenishing surface water and groundwater (i.e., groundwater recharge ). Reused water may also be directed toward fulfilling certain needs in residences (e.g. toilet flushing), businesses, and industry, and could even be treated to reach drinking water standards. This last option is called either "direct potable reuse" or "indirect potable" reuse, depending on the approach used. Colloquially, the term "toilet to tap" also refers to potable reuse. Reclaiming water for reuse applications instead of using freshwater supplies can be a water-saving measure
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Methane Hydrate
METHANE CLATHRATE (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called METHANE HYDRATE, HYDROMETHANE, METHANE ICE, FIRE ICE, NATURAL GAS HYDRATE, or GAS HYDRATE, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate ) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice . Originally thought to occur only in the outer regions of the Solar System
Solar System
, where temperatures are low and water ice is common, significant deposits of methane clathrate have been found under sediments on the ocean floors of the Earth
Earth
. Methane
Methane
clathrates are common constituents of the shallow marine geosphere and they occur in deep sedimentary structures and form outcrops on the ocean floor
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Valve
A VALVE is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries ) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically fittings , but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure. The word is derived from the Latin valva, the moving part of a door, in turn from volvere, to turn, roll. The simplest, and very ancient, valve is simply a freely hinged flap which drops to obstruct fluid (gas or liquid) flow in one direction, but is pushed open by flow in the opposite direction. This is called a check valve , as it prevents or "checks" the flow in one direction. Modern control valves may regulate pressure or flow downstream and operate on sophisticated automation systems
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Latent Heat
LATENT HEAT is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system , during a constant-temperature process - usually a first-order phase transition . Latent heat
Latent heat
can be understood as heat energy in hidden form which is supplied or extracted to change the state of a substance without changing its temperature. Examples are latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization involved in phase changes , i.e. a substance condensing or vaporizing at a specified temperature and pressure. The term was introduced around 1762 by British chemist Joseph Black . It is derived from the Latin latere (to lie hidden). Black used the term in the context of calorimetry where a heat transfer caused a volume change while the thermodynamic system's temperature was constant. In contrast to latent heat, sensible heat involves an energy transfer that results in a temperature change of the system
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Reverse Osmosis Plant
A REVERSE OSMOSIS PLANT is a manufacturing plant where the process of reverse osmosis takes place. An average modern reverse osmosis plant needs six kilowatt-hours of electricity to desalinate one cubic metre of water. The process also results in an amount of salty briny waste. The challenge for these plants is to find ways to reduce energy consumption, use sustainable energy sources, improve the process of desalination and to innovate in the area of waste management to deal with the waste. Self-contained water treatment plants using reverse osmosis, called reverse osmosis water purification units , are normally used in a military context
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Regenerative Heat Exchanger
A REGENERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER, or more commonly a REGENERATOR, is a type of heat exchanger where heat from the hot fluid is intermittently stored in a thermal storage medium before it is transferred to the cold fluid. To accomplish this the hot fluid is brought into contact with the heat storage medium, then the fluid is displaced with the cold fluid, which absorbs the heat. In regenerative heat exchangers, the fluid on either side of the heat exchanger can be the same fluid. The fluid may go through an external processing step, and then it is flowed back through the heat exchanger in the opposite direction for further processing. Usually the application will use this process cyclically or repetitively
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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