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Muhammad Bin Qasim
‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī (Arabic: عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي‎; c. 695 – 715[citation needed]) was an Umayyad
Umayyad
general who conquered the Sindh and Multan
Multan
regions along the Indus River
Indus River
(now a part of Pakistan) for the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate. He was born and raised in the city of Ta'if
Ta'if
(in modern-day Saudi Arabia)
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Camel Cavalry
Camel
Camel
cavalry, or camelry, is a generic designation for armed forces using camels as a means of transportation. Sometimes warriors or soldiers of this type also fought from camel-back with spears, bows or rifles. Camel
Camel
cavalry were a common element in desert warfare throughout history in the Middle East, due in part to the animal's high level of adaptability. They provided a mobile element better suited to work and survive in an arid and waterless environment than the horses of conventional cavalry
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Muslim Conquest Of Persia
KhuzestanHormizd-Ardashir Susa Ram-Hormizd Shushtar GundishapurCentral PersiaNahavand Spahan Waj Rudh RayNorthern PersiaTabaristan Armenia Azerbaijan Caucasian Albania IberiaParsBishapur Darabgerd 1st Estakhr Gor 2nd EstakhrKermanSirjan QeshmSakastanZaranjKhorasan Oxus
Oxus
River Nishapur Herat Badghisv t eEarly Muslim
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Arab People
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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Kutch
Kutch
Kutch
district (also spelled as Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India. Covering an area of 45,674 km²,[1] it is the largest district of India[2]. The population of Kutch
Kutch
is about 2,092,000.[3] It has 10 Talukas, 939 villages and 6 Municipalities.[3] Kutch
Kutch
literally means something which intermittently becomes wet and dry; a large part of this district is known as Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
which is shallow wetland which submerges in water during the rainy season and becomes dry during other seasons. The same word is also used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
origin for a tortoise
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Kathiawar
Kathiawar
Kathiawar
([kaʈʰijaʋaɽ]; also written Kathiawad or Kattywar) is a peninsula in western India and part of the Saurashtra region.[1][2][3][4][5] Its coastline borders the Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Kutch
to the west, the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the south and the Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
to the southeast and east
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Frontier
A frontier is the political and geographical area near or beyond a boundary. The term came from French in the 15th century, with the meaning "borderland"—the region of a country that fronts on another country (see also marches). A frontier can also be referred to as a "front". A difference has also been established in academic scholarship between Frontier
Frontier
and Border, the latter denoting a fixed, rigid and clear-cut form of state boundary.[1]Contents1 European Union 2 Muscovy and Russia 3 Australia 4 Colonial North America 5 Canadian frontier5.1 Canadian prairies6 United States 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References9.1 US history 9.2 Canada 9.3 Siberian frontier 9.4 Comparative Frontiers10 Further reading 11 External linksEuropean Union[edit] In the European Union, the frontier is the region beyond the expanding borders of the European Union
European Union
itself
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Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean
Ocean
is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).[1] It is bounded by Asia
Asia
on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, a
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Arabia
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia[1] (Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية‎ Shibhu al-jazīrati al-ʿarabiyya, ‘Arabian island’ or Arabic: جزيرة العرب‎ Jazīratu Al-ʿArab, ‘Island of the Arabs’),[2] is a peninsula of Western Asia
Asia
situated northeast of Africa
Africa
on the Arabian plate
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Casus Belli
Casus belli
Casus belli
is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").[1] A casus belli involves direct offenses or threats against the nation declaring the war, whereas a casus foederis involves offenses or threats against its ally—usually one bound by a mutual defense pact.[2][3] Either may be considered an act of war. The term came into wide use in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries through the writings of Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius
(1653), Cornelius van Bynkershoek (1707), and Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui
Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui
(1732), among others, and due to the rise of the political doctrine of jus ad bellum or "just war theory".[4][5] The term is also used informally to refer to any "just cause" a nation may claim for entering into a conflict
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Makran
Makran
Makran
(Urdu: مکران ‬‎), (pronounced [mæk'rɑːn]) is a semi-desert coastal strip in Balochistan, in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran, along the coast of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and the Gulf of Oman.Contents1 Etymology 2 Achaemenid
Achaemenid
era 3 Buddhism and Hinduism in the eastern parts in the seventh century3.1 Islamic conquest 3.2 Balochi attack on Mahmud Ghazni4 Modern era 5 Geography 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The southern part of Balochistan
Balochistan
is called Kech Makran
Makran
on Pakistani side and Makran
Makran
on the Iranian side which is also the name of a former Iranian province.[1] Prior to that, in Achaemenid
Achaemenid
times, the name Maka was used for the region
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Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan
Balochistan
(Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچِستان‬‎, Balōčistān, pronounced [bəloːt͡ʃɪst̪ɑːn]) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, and largest province in terms of land area, forming the southwestern region of the country. Its provincial capital and largest city is Quetta
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Second Fitnah
Yazid I Umar ibn Sa'ad (686) † Marwan I Abd al-Malik Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad
Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad
(686) † Husayn ibn Numayr
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Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81Democratic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese) Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil) Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasuFlagEmblemAnthem: "Sri
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Mawali
Mawlā (Arabic: مولى‎), plural mawālī (موالي), is a polysemous Arabic word, whose meaning varied in different periods and contexts.[1] In the Quran
Quran
and hadith it is used in two senses: Lord; and guardian, trustee, helper.[1] In the pre-Islamic era the term originally applied to any form of tribal association.[2] During the early Islamic era, this institution was adapted to incorporate new converts to Islam
Islam
into the Arab-Muslim society and the word mawali gained currency as an appellation for non-Arab Muslims.Contents1 Etymology 2 History of mawali 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 BibliographyEtymology[edit] The word mawla is derived from the root w-l-y, meaning "to be close to", "to be friends with", or "to have power over"
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Kabul
Kabul
Kabul
(/ˈkɑːbʊl/; Persian: [ˈkɒːbul]) is the capital of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. It is also a municipality, forming part of the greater Kabul
Kabul
Province. According to estimates in 2015, the population of Kabul
Kabul
is 4.635 million,[1] which includes all the major ethnic groups.[2] Rapid urbanization had made Kabul
Kabul
the world's 75th largest city.[3] Kabul
Kabul
is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains, with an elevation of 1,790 metres (5,873 ft) making it one of the highest capitals in the world. The city is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire. It is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia, and a key location of the ancient Silk Road
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