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Muhammad Ali
Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
(/ɑːˈliː/;[8] born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.;[9] January 17, 1942 – June 3, 2016) was an American professional boxer and activist. He is widely regarded as one of the most significant and celebrated sports figures of the 20th century. From early in his career, Ali
Ali
was known as an inspiring, controversial, and polarizing figure both inside and outside the ring.[10][11] Cassius Clay was born and raised in Louisville, Kentucky, and began training as an amateur boxer when he was 12 years old. At age 18, he won a gold medal in the light heavyweight division at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome and turned professional later that year. At age 22 in 1964, he won the WBA, WBC, and lineal heavyweight titles from Sonny Liston in a major upset. Clay then converted to Islam
Islam
and changed his name from Cassius Clay, which he called his "slave name", to Muhammad Ali
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World Boxing Association
The World Boxing
Boxing
Association (WBA) is the oldest and one of four major organizations which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the IBF, WBC, and WBO. The WBA awards the WBA world championship title at the professional level. Founded in the United States in 1921 by thirteen state representatives as the National Boxing
Boxing
Association (NBA), in 1962 it changed its name in recognition of boxing's growing popularity worldwide, and began to gain other nations as members. By 1975, a majority of votes were held by Latin American nations, and the organization headquarters were moved to Panama. After being located during the 1990s and early 2000s in Venezuela, the organization offices returned to Panama
Panama
in 2007
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North American Boxing Federation
The North American Boxing Federation (NABF) is a not-for-profit regional sanctioning body that awards regional boxing titles. It is a boxing federation within the World Boxing Council
World Boxing Council
(WBC).Contents1 History1.1 Championship lineage 1.2 Current title holders2 Other regional WBC federations 3 External links 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The WBC established the NABF in 1969 as part of its creation of a variety of regional boxing federations. These regional federations would sanction championship bouts and crown regional champions. These champions would be given consideration in the world rankings put out by the WBC
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Scottsdale, Arizona
Scottsdale (O'odham: Vaṣai S-vaṣonĭ; Yaqui: Eskatel) is a city in the eastern part of Maricopa County, Arizona, part of the Greater Phoenix Area. Named Scottsdale in 1894 after founder Winfield Scott and incorporated in 1951 with a population of 2,000, the 2015 population of the city is estimated to be 236,839 according to the U.S. Census
Census
Bureau.[5] The New York Times
The New York Times
described downtown Scottsdale as "a desert version of Miami's South Beach" and as having "plenty of late night partying and a buzzing hotel scene."[6] Its slogan is "The West's Most Western Town."[7] Scottsdale, 31 miles long and 11.4 miles wide at its widest point, shares boundaries with many other municipalities and entities. On the west, Scottsdale is bordered by Phoenix, Paradise Valley and unincorporated Maricopa County
Maricopa County
land
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Septic Shock
Septic shock is a serious medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism.[1] The primary infection is most commonly caused by bacteria, but also may be by fungi, viruses or parasites. It may be located in any part of the body, but most commonly in the lungs, brain, urinary tract, skin or abdominal organs.[2] It can cause multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (formerly known as multiple organ failure) and death.[3] Frequently, people with septic shock are cared for in intensive care units. It most commonly affects children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly, as their immune systems cannot deal with infection so effectively as those of healthy adults
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1][a] .mw-parser-outpu
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Conscripted
Military
Military
service National service Conscription
Conscription
crisis Conscientious objector Alternative civilian service Conscription
Conscription
by countryv t eConscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.[5] Conscription
Conscription
dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names. The modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a very large and powerful military
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Presidential Medal Of Freedom
The Presidential Medal of Freedom
Medal of Freedom
is an award bestowed by the President of the United States
President of the United States
and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States. It recognizes those people who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors".[2] The award is not limited to U.S. citizens and, while it is a civilian award, it can also be awarded to military personnel and worn on the uniform. It was established in 1963 by President John F. Kennedy,[3] superseding the Medal of Freedom
Medal of Freedom
that was established by President Harry S. Truman
Harry S

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Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
(CSHL) is a private, non-profit institution with research programs focusing on cancer, neuroscience, plant genetics, genomics, and quantitative biology.[2] It is one of 68 institutions supported by the Cancer Centers Program of the U.S. National Cancer Institute
National Cancer Institute
(NCI) and has been an NCI-designated Cancer Center
NCI-designated Cancer Center
since 1987.[3] The Laboratory is one of a handful of institutions that played a central role in the development of molecular genetics and molecular biology.[4] It has been home to eight scientists who have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
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Olympic Games
The modern Olympic Games
Olympic Games
or Olympics (French: Jeux olympiques[1][2]) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating.[3] The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896
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Activist
Activism
Activism
consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society. Forms of activism range from writing letters to newspapers or to politicians, political campaigning, economic activism such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing businesses, rallies, street marches, strikes, sit-ins, and hunger strikes. One can also express activism through different forms of art (artivism). Daily acts of protest such as not buying clothes from a certain clothing company because they exploit workers is another form of activism
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Associated Press
The Associated Press
Associated Press
(AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. Its members are U.S. newspapers and broadcasters. The AP has earned 53 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. It earned a 2019 Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting for coverage of the civil war in Yemen. The AP has counted the vote in U.S. elections since 1848, including national, state and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish, city and town across the U.S., and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English, Spanish and Arabic. AP content is also available on the agency's app, AP News
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Boxing At The 1960 Summer Olympics
The modern Olympic Games
Olympic Games
or Olympics (French: Jeux olympiques[1][2]) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating.[3] The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896
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Amateur Athletic Union
The Amateur Athletic Union
Amateur Athletic Union
(AAU) is an amateur sports organization based in the United States. A multi-sport organization, the AAU is dedicated exclusively to the promotion and development of amateur sports and physical fitness programs. It has more than 700,000 members nationwide, including more than 100,000 volunteers. The AAU was founded on January 21, 1888, by James E. Sullivan with the goal of creating common standards in amateur sport.[1] Since then, most national championships for youth athletes in the United States have taken place under AAU leadership. From its founding as a publicly supported organization, the AAU has represented US sports within the various international sports federations. It has grown over the years to become one of the leading and most influential associations. The AAU formerly worked closely with the United States
United States
Olympic Committee to prepare U.S
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Cassius Marcellus Clay (other)
Cassius Marcellus Clay may refer to: Cassius Marcellus Clay (politician)
Cassius Marcellus Clay (politician)
(1810–1903), American politician and abolitionist Cassius Marcellus Clay Sr. (1912–1990), American painter and musician, named after the abolitionist, father of the boxer Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.
Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.
or Muhammad Ali (1942–2016), American boxerThis disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name
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