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Mufti
A mufti (/ˈmʌfti/; Arabic: مفتي‎) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law ( Sharia
Sharia
and fiqh).[1] Muftis are jurists qualified to give authoritative legal opinions known as fatwas.[2] Historically, they were members of the ulama ranking above qadis.[2]Contents1 Background history 2 Qualifications 3 Relationship 4 European parallels 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksBackground history[edit] With the introduction of the secular court system in the 19th century, Ottoman councils began to enforce criminal legislation, in order to emphasize their position as part of the new executive
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Principles Of Islamic Jurisprudence
A principle is a concept or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule that has to be, or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed
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Fiqh
Fiqh
Fiqh
(/fɪk/; Arabic: فقه‎ [fɪqh]) is Islamic jurisprudence.[1] While sharia is believed by Muslims to represent divine law as revealed in the Quran
Quran
and the Sunnah
Sunnah
(the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet
Islamic prophet
Muhammad), fiqh is the human understanding of the sharia[2]—sharia expanded and developed by interpretation (ijtihad) of the Quran
Quran
and Sunnah
Sunnah
by Islamic jurists (ulama)[2] and implemented by the rulings (fatwa) of jurists on questions presented to them. Thus conceptually, whereas sharia is considered immutable and infallible, fiqh is considered fallible and changeable. Fiqh
Fiqh
deals with the observance of rituals, morals and social legislation in Islam
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Jihad
Jihad
Jihad
(English: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهاد‎ jihād [dʒɪˈhaːd]) is an Arabic
Arabic
word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.[1][2][3][4] It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, an exertion to conve
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Hujjat Al-Islam
Mullā Muḥammad-ʿAlī al-Zanjānī (Arabic: ملا محمد علي الزنجاني‎), surnamed Ḥujjat (1812 - 1851), was an early leader of the Bábí
Bábí
movement of 19th-century Persia. He is regarded by Bahá'ís as part of their own religious history, and is highly featured in the two primary Bahá'í historical books of God Passes By and The Dawn-breakers.Contents1 Background 2 Conversion 3 See also 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] Mullá Muḥammad-‘Aliy-i-Zanjání was the son of Ákhúnd Mullá `Abdu'r-Raḥím, a respected early nineteenth century mulla from Zanjan. As a boy, Muḥammad-‘Alí showed promise, such that his father sent him to the shiite shrine-cities of Najaf and Karbala in Iraq, where he studied under the prominent Sharífu'l-'Ulamá Mázandarání. With the death of his teacher and the closing of the seminaries during the epidemic of 1831, he returned to Iran, settling in Hamadan
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Moharebeh
Ḥirābah (Arabic: حرابة‎) is an Arabic
Arabic
word for “piracy”, or “unlawful warfare”. Hirabah comes from the root ḥrb, which means “to become angry and enraged”. The noun ḥarb (حَرْب, pl
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Grand Imam Of Al-Azhar
The Grand Imam of al-Azhar (Arabic: الإمام الأكبر), also known as Grand Sheikh of al-Azhar (Arabic: شيخ الأزهر الشريف), currently Ahmed el-Tayeb, is a prestigious Sunni Islam title and a prominent official title in Egypt.[1] He is considered by some Muslims to be the highest authority in Sunni Islamic thought and Islamic jurisprudence[2] and holds a great influence on followers of the theological Ash'ari
Ash'ari
and Maturidi
Maturidi
traditions worldwide. The Grand Imam Heads the al-Azhar Mosque, and by extension al-Azhar University, and is responsible for official religious matters along with the Grand Mufti of Egypt. History of the title[edit] The title of the Grand Imam of al-Azhar was officially established in 1961
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Hafiz (Quran)
Hafiz (Arabic: حافظ‎, translit. ḥāfiẓ, حُفَّاظ, pl. ḥuffāẓ, حافظة f. ḥāfiẓa), literally meaning "guardian" or "memorizer", depending on the context, is a term used by Muslims for someone who has completely memorized the Qur'an. Hafiza is the female equivalent.[1]Contents1 History 2 Study 3 Etymology 4 Practice 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
lived in the 7th century CE, in Arabia
Arabia
in a time when few people were literate. The Arabs
Arabs
preserved their histories, genealogies, and poetry by memory alone. Muslims believe that when Muhammad
Muhammad
proclaimed the verses later collected as the Qur'an, his followers preserved the words by memorizing them
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Thawab
Sawāb or Thawāb (Arabic: ثواب‎) is an Arabic term meaning "reward". Specifically, in the context of an Islamic worldview, thawab refers to spiritual merit or reward that accrues from the performance of good deeds and piety.[1]Contents1 Pronunciation 2 Activities for earning thawab 3 See also 4 ReferencesPronunciation[edit] The word thawab is used throughout the Islamic world, so the spelling and pronunciation is slightly different from one region to another. In Kazakh society, for instance, it may be pronounced as "sauap", in Iran as "savab", in Arab areas as "thawab" and in India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
as "savab" or "sawab".[2][3] In Bosnian and Turkish the word becomes sevap. Activities for earning thawab[edit] Usually any and all good acts are considered to contribute towards earning sawab, but for a Muslim there are certain acts that are more rewarding than others
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Makruh
In Islamic
Islamic
terminology, something which is makruh (Arabic: مكروه, transliterated: makrooh or makrūh) is a disliked or offensive act (literally "detestable" or "abominable"[1]). It is one of the five categories (al-ahkam al-khamsa) in Islamic
Islamic
law -- wajib/fard (obligatory), Mustahabb/mandub (recommended), mubah (neutral), makruh (disapproved), haram (forbidden).[2] Though it is not haram (forbidden) or subject to punishment, a person who abstains from this act will be rewarded.[1] Muslims are encouraged to avoid such actions when or as possible
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Mubah
Mubah (Arabic: مباح) is an Arabic word meaning "permitted",[1] which has technical uses in Islamic law. In uṣūl al-fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence), mubah is one of the five degrees of approval (ahkam), and is commonly translated as "neutral",[2][3] "indifferent"[4] or "(merely) permitted".[4][5] It refers to an action that is not mandatory, recommended, reprehensible or forbidden, and thus involves no judgement from God.[2] Assigning acts to this legal category reflects a deliberate choice rather than an oversight on the part of jurists.[3] In Islamic property law, the term mubah refers to things which have no owner. It is similar to the concept res nullius used in Roman law and common law.[6] See also[edit]HalalReferences[edit]^ Hans Wehr, J. Milton Cowan (1976). A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (3rd ed.). Spoken Language Services. p. 81.  ^ a b Vikør, Knut S. (2014). "Sharīʿah". In Emad El-Din Shahin
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Mustahabb
Mustahabb (Arabic: مستحبّ‎, lit. 'recommended') is an Islamic term
Islamic term
referring to recommended, favoured or virtuous actions. Mustahabb actions are those whose status of approval in Islamic law (ahkam) falls between mubah (neither encouraged nor discouraged) and wajib (compulsory). One definition is "duties recommended, but not essential; fulfilment of which is rewarded, though they may be neglected without punishment".[1] Synonyms of mustahabb include masnun and mandub. The opposite of mustahabb is makruh (discouraged).Contents1 Examples 2 References 3 See also 4 External linksExamples[edit] There are thousands of mustahabb acts,[2] including: As-Salamu Alaykum (a traditional Islamic greeting, Arabic for "peace be upon you") Sadaqah (charity outside of zakat) UmrahReferences[edit]^ Reuben Levy, The Social Structure of Islam, p. 202 ^ Turner, Colin (2013-12-19)
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Taghut
Taghut (ar. طاغوت, ṭāġūt, pl. ṭawāġīt) is an Islamic terminology denoting a focus of worship other than Allah. In traditional theology, the term often connotes idols, Satan
Satan
and jinn. The term is also applied to earthly tyrannical power, as implied in surah An-Nisa
An-Nisa
verse 60.[1] The modern Islamic philosopher
Islamic philosopher
Abul A'la Maududi defines taghut in his Qur'anic commentary as a creature who not only rebels against God
God
but transgresses his will.[2] Due to these associations, the term may refer to any person or group accused of being anti-Islamic and an agent of Western cultural imperialism
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Ashraf
Ashraf
Ashraf
(Arabic: أشراف‎), with long ā in the second system , is the plural of sharīf "noble", from sharafa "to be highborn", but ašhraf (‏أشرف‎), with short a, is the elative of sharīf meaning "very noble", "nobler", "noblest". Like the Sadah (plural of Sayyid), Ashraf
Ashraf
often take their names from ancestry from Muhammad, Fatima and Ali
Ali
and have in many Muslim societies Ashraf
Ashraf
evolved into an honorific denoting "master" or "gentry". More precisely, the Ashraf
Ashraf
are descendants of Ali's elder son, Hassan, and the Sadah those of Ali's younger son Hussain. During the Abbasid
Abbasid
period, the term was applied to all Ahl al-Bayt, basically Muhammad's own family, including, for example, the descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyya, of Ali's second wife and of the Hashemites
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Caliphate
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/, Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah,  pronunciation (help·info)), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim
Muslim
community.[1] Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam
Islam
which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[2] During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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