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Muḥammad Ibn Mūsā Al-Khwārizmī
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[note 1] (Persian: محمد بن موسى خوارزمی‎; c. 780 – c. 850), formerly Latinized as Algoritmi,[note 2] was a Persian[3][4] scholar who produced works in mathematics, astronomy, and geography under the patronage of the Caliph Al-Ma'mun
Al-Ma'mun
of the Abbasid Caliphate.[5]:668 Around 820 AD he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom
House of Wisdom
in Baghdad.[6]:14 Al-Khwarizmi's popularizing treatise on algebra (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, ca. 813-833 CE[7]:171) presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic
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Al-Khwārizmī (other)
Al-Khwarizmi
Al-Khwarizmi
(lit
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Muhammad Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (/ˈtɑːbəri/; Persian: محمد بن جریر طبری‎, Arabic: أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري‎) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian[2][3] scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an
Qur'an
from Amol, Tabaristan
Tabaristan
(modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic. Today, he is best known for his expertise in Qur'anic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence and world history, but he has been described as "an impressively prolific polymath
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Positional Notation
Positional notation
Positional notation
or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers. Positional notation
Positional notation
is distinguished from other notations (such as Roman numerals) for its use of the same symbol for the different orders of magnitude (for example, the "ones place", "tens place", "hundreds place"). This greatly simplified arithmetic, leading to the rapid spread of the notation across the world. With the use of a radix point (decimal point in base-10), the notation can be extended to include fractions and the numeric expansions of real numbers. The Babylonian numeral system, base-60, was the first positional system developed, and its influence is present today in the way time and angles are counted in tallies related to 60, like 60 minutes in an hour, 360 degrees in a circle. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system, base-10, is the most commonly used system in the world today for most calculations
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Robert Of Chester
Robert of Chester
Chester
(Latin: Robertus Castrensis) was an English Arabist of the 12th century. He translated several historically important books from Arabic
Arabic
to Latin, by authors such as Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan and Al-Khwarizmi
Al-Khwarizmi
including:Liber de compositione alchimiae, translated in 1144, the first book in Europe on alchemy[1] Liber algebrae et almucabola, Al-Khwārizmī's book about algebra, translated in 1145[2]In the 1140s Robert worked in Spain, where the division of the country between Muslim and Christian rulers resulted in opportunities for interchange between the different cultures. However, by the end of the decade he had returned to England
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List Of Medieval Universities
The list of medieval universities comprises universities (more precisely, studium generale) which existed in Europe
Europe
during the Middle Ages.[1] It also includes short-lived foundations and European educational institutions whose university status is a matter of debate. The degree-awarding university with its corporate organization and relative autonomy is a product of medieval Christian Europe.[1] Before 1500 more than eighty universities were established in Western and Central Europe
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Ptolemy
Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(/ˈtɒləmi/; Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos [kláwdios ptolɛmɛ́ːos]; Latin: Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemaeus; c. AD 100 – c. 170)[2] was a Greco-Roman[3] mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.[4][5] He lived in the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, and held Roman citizenship.[6] The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou
Ptolemais Hermiou
(Greek: Πτολεμαΐς ‘Ερμείου) in the Thebaid
Thebaid
(Greek: Θηβαΐδα [Θηβαΐς])
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Geography (Ptolemy)
The Geography (Greek: Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, lit. "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin
Latin
names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire
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Ibn Al-Nadim
Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Nadīm (Arabic: ابوالفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم‎) known as Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Abī Ya'qūb Ishāq ibn Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Warrāq (d. 17 September 995 or 998 CE) was a Muslim
Muslim
scholar and bibliographer[1] Al-Nadīm was the tenth century bibliophile who compiled the encyclopedic catalogue known as 'Kitāb al-Fihrist'. This important source of medieval Islāmic culture and scholarship, from his own and various ancient civilizations, preserves many names of authors, book titles and accounts that would otherwise be entirely lost. Al-Fihrist evidences Al-Nadīm's voracious thirst and curiosity for all forms of knowledge and learning, and captures a glimpse into an exciting sophisticated milieu of Baghdad's intellectual elite
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Greater Khorasan
Khorasan ( Middle Persian
Middle Persian
xwarāsān, Persian: خراسان‎ Ḫurāsān  listen (help·info)), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Afghanistan. The name simply means "East, Orient" (literally "sunrise")[1] and it loosely includes the territory of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
east of Persia proper. Early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of so-called Jibal
Jibal
or what was subsequently termed 'Iraq Adjami' (Persian Iraq), as being included in a vast and loosely-defined region of Khorasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
and Sindh.[2] During the Islamic period, Khorasan along with Persian Iraq were two important territories
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Khiva
Khiva
Khiva
(Uzbek: Xiva/Хива, خىۋا; Persian: خیوه‎, Xīveh; alternative or historical names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chorezm, and Persian: خوارزم‎) is a city of approximately 50,000 people located in Xorazm Region, Uzbekistan. According to archaeological data, the city was established in the beginning of the Christian era.[1] It is the former capital of Khwarezmia
Khwarezmia
and the Khanate of Khiva. Itchan Kala
Itchan Kala
in Khiva
Khiva
was the first site in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
to be inscribed in the World Heritage List (1991)
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Xorazm Region
Xorazm Region
Xorazm Region
(Uzbek: Xorazm viloyati, Хоразм вилояти, خارەزم ۋىلايەتى) or Khorezm Region as it is still more commonly known, is a viloyat (region) of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
located in the northwest of the country in the lower reaches of the Amu-Darya
Amu-Darya
River. It borders with Turkmenistan, Karakalpakstan, and Bukhara Region. It covers an area of 6,300 square kilometres (2,400 sq mi). The population is estimated to be around 1,200,000, with some 80% living in rural areas. Khorezm Region is divided into 10 administrative districts. The capital is Urgench
Urgench
(pop est 135,000)
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Uzbekistan
Coordinates: 42°N 63°E / 42°N 63°E / 42; 63 Republic
Republic
of Uzbekistan O'zbekiston Respublikasi  (Uzbek)FlagState emblem[1]Anthem:  Oʻzbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi State Anthem of the Republic
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Majus
Majūs (Arabic: مجوس , Persian: مگوش , plural of majūsī) was originally a term meaning Zoroastrians[1] (and specifically, Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
priests). It was a technical term, meaning magus,[2][3] and like its synonym gabr (of uncertain etymology) originally had no pejorative implications.[4] It is also translated as "fire worshipper".[5] In the 1980s, majus was part of Iraqi propaganda vocabulary of the Iran–Iraq War
Iran–Iraq War
to refer to Iranians in general. "By referring to the Iranians in these documents as majus, the security apparatus [implied] that the Iranians [were] not sincere Muslims, but rather covertly practice their pre-Islamic beliefs. Thus, in their eyes, Iraq’s war took on the dimensions of not only a struggle for Arab nationalism, but also a campaign in the name of Islam."[6] The term majus is distinct from Arabic
Arabic
kafir "unbeliever"
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Epithet
An epithet (from Greek: ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added"[1]) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, objects, and binomial nomenclature
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