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Mu'awiya Ibn Hisham
Mu'awiya ibn Hisham (fl. 725–737) was an Arab general, the son of the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
(r. 723–743), who distinguished himself in the Arab– Byzantine
Byzantine
Wars. His son, Abd al-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya, was the founder of the Emirate of Córdoba
Emirate of Córdoba
and the Umayyad
Umayyad
line of al-Andalus. Biography[edit] Mu'awiya he was son of the Caliph Hisham ibn Abd Al-Malik and Um Al-Hakam bint Yahia ibn Al-Hakam, one of his cousins, is known chiefly for his role in the Arab– Byzantine
Byzantine
Wars, where he led many invasions against Byzantine
Byzantine
Asia Minor. The first campaign he led was in summer 725, which was carried out in conjunction with a naval attack by Maymun ibn Mihran against Cyprus
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Arabs
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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Nicaea
Nicaea
Nicaea
or Nicea (/naɪˈsiːə/; Greek: Νίκαια, Níkaia; Turkish: İznik) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
(which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea
Empire of Nicaea
following the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople
Constantinople
by the Byzantines in 1261. The ancient city is located within the modern Turkish city of İznik (whose modern name derives from Nicaea's), and is situated in a fertile basin at the eastern end of Lake Ascanius, bounded by ranges of hills to the north and south
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Berber People
Berbers
Berbers
or Amazighs (Berber languages: ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ Imaziɣen; singular: ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ Amaziɣ / Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting the Maghreb. They are distributed in an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the Niger
Niger
River in West Africa. Historically, they spoke Berber languages, which together form the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. Since the Muslim conquest
Muslim conquest
of North Africa
North Africa
in the seventh century, a large number of Berbers
Berbers
inhabiting the Maghreb
Maghreb
(Tamazgha) have in varying degrees used as lingua franca the other languages spoken in North Africa
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Theophanes The Confessor
Theophanes may refer to: Saints[edit] Theodorus and Theophanes
Theodorus and Theophanes
(ca
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Aegean Sea
The Aegean Sea
Sea
(/ɪˈdʒiːən/; Greek: Αιγαίο Πέλαγος [eˈʝeo ˈpelaɣos] ( listen); Turkish: Ege Denizi Turkish pronunciation: [eɟe denizi])[stress?] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece
Greece
and Turkey. In the north, the Aegean is connected to the Marmara Sea
Sea
and Black Sea
Sea
by the Dardanelles
Dardanelles
and Bosphorus
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Sardeis
Sardis
Sardis
(/ˈsɑːrdɪs/) or Sardes (/ˈsɑːrdiːz/; Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Ancient Greek: Σάρδεις Sardeis; Old Persian: Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa
Manisa
Province. Sardis
Sardis
was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia,[1] one of the important cities of the Persian Empire, the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia
Lydia
in later Roman and Byzantine
Byzantine
times. As one of the Seven churches of Asia, it was addressed by John, the author of the Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation
in the Bible, in terms which seem to imply that its population was notoriously soft and fainthearted
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Paphlagonia
Paphlagonia
Paphlagonia
(/ˌpæfləˈɡoʊniə/; Ancient Greek: Παφλαγονία, Paphlagonía, modern pronunciation Paflagonía; Turkish: Paflagonya) was an ancient area on the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia
Bithynia
to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia
Phrygia
(later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. According to Strabo, the river Parthenius formed the western limit of the region, and it was bounded on the east by the Halys river. The name Paphlagonia
Paphlagonia
is derived in the legends from Paphlagon, a son of Phineus. (Eustath. ad Horn. II. ii. 851, ad Dion. Per. 787; Steph. B. t.v.; Const. Porph. de Them. i
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Akroinon
Afyonkarahisar
Afyonkarahisar
(Turkish pronunciation: [afjonkaɾahiˈsaɾ], Turkish: afyon "poppy, opium", kara "black", hisar "fortress"[3]) is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province. Afyon is in mountainous countryside inland from the Aegean coast, 250 km (155 mi) south-west of Ankara
Ankara
along the Akarçay River. Elevation 1,021 m (3,350 ft)
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Maslama Ibn Abd Al-Malik
al- Malik
Malik
(Arabic: الملك‎), literally "the King", is a name that may refer to:The title King of Kings One of the 99 names of God
99 names of God
in Islam Abd al-
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Charsianon
Charsianon
Charsianon
(Greek: Χαρσιανόν) was the name of a Byzantine fortress and the corresponding theme (a military-civilian province) in the region of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
in central Anatolia
Anatolia
(modern Turkey). It center was first in Charsianon
Charsianon
(its ruins are found in Muşalikalesi village of Akdağmadeni
Akdağmadeni
district in Yozgat Province), later in Caesarea. History[edit] The fortress of Charsianon
Charsianon
(Greek: Χαρσιανόν κάστρον, Charsianon
Charsianon
kastron; Arabic: Qal'e-i Ḥarsanōs) is first mentioned in 638, during the first wave of the Muslim conquests, and was allegedly named after a general of Justinian I
Justinian I
named Charsios
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Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Gangra
Çankırı
Çankırı
is the capital city of Çankırı
Çankırı
Province, in Turkey, about 140 km (87 mi) northeast of Ankara. It is situated about 800 m (2500 ft) above sea level.Contents1 History 2 Climate 3 Economy3.1 Agriculture 3.2 Industry4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingHistory[edit] Çankırı
Çankırı
was known in antiquity as Gangra (Greek: Γάγγρα), and later Germanicopolis (Greek: Γερμανικόπολις)
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Khalid Yahya Blankinship
Khalid Yahya Blankinship (born 1949 in Seattle
Seattle
Washington) is an American historian who specialises in Islamic and Middle Eastern studies. He graduated in 1973 from the University of Washington
University of Washington
in History[1] and in the same year, while still in Seattle, converted to Islam.[2] In 1975 Blankinship received an MA in Teaching English as a Foreign Language from the American University in Cairo, in 1983 a second MA in Islamic History from Cairo University
Cairo University
and in 1988 a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
in History from the University of Washington.[1] He was an advisor for the award-winning, PBS-broadcast documentary Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet (2002), produced by Unity Productions Foundation. He has lived and traveled widely in the Middle East, including eleven years in Egypt
Egypt
and one year in Mecca, Saudi Arabia
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Dorylaion
Dorylaeum
Dorylaeum
or Dorylaion (Greek: Δορύλαιον) was an ancient city in Anatolia. It is now in ruins near the city of Eskişehir, Turkey. Its original location was about 10 km southwest of Eskişehir, at a place now known as Karaca Hisar; about the end of the fourth century B.C. it was moved to a location north of modern Eskişehir.[1]Contents1 History 2 Ecclesiastical history2.1 Titular see3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Sources and external linksHistory[edit] The city existed under the Phrygians but may have been much older. It was a Roman trading post. It also was probably a key city of the route the Apostle Paul
Apostle Paul
took on his Second Missionary Voyage in 50 AD. It became a bishopric when part of the Late Roman province
Roman province
of Phrygia Salutaris. In the third century AD, it was threatened by Gothic raids
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