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Mountain Range
A MOUNTAIN RANGE or HILL RANGE is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A MOUNTAIN SYSTEM or MOUNTAIN BELT is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usually an orogeny . Mountain
Mountain
ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth
Earth
are the result of plate tectonics . Mountain
Mountain
ranges are also found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System
Solar System
and are likely a feature of most terrestrial planets . Mountain
Mountain
ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys . Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology
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Indonesia
Coordinates : 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic
Republic
of Indonesia Republik Indonesia
Indonesia
(Indonesian ) Flag National emblem MOTTO:
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Poland
Coordinates : 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska (Polish ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "Mazurek Dąbrowskiego " (English: "
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Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain Reino de España (Spanish ) 6 other official names * ARAGONESE : Reino d'Espanya ASTURIAN : Reinu d'España BASQUE : Espainiako Erresuma CATALAN : Regne d'Espanya GALICIAN : Reino de España OCCITAN : Reiaume d'Espanha Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real " (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain
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Lithology
The LITHOLOGY of a rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop , in hand or core samples or with low magnification microscopy, such as colour, texture, grain size, or composition. It may be either a detailed description of these characteristics or be a summary of the gross physical character of a rock. It is the basis of subdividing rock sequences into individual lithostratigraphic units for the purposes of mapping and correlation between areas. In certain applications, such as site investigations , lithology is described using a standard terminology such as in the European geotechnical standard Eurocode 7
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Fold (geology)
A geological FOLD occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata , are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation . Synsedimentary folds are those due to slumping of sedimentary material before it is lithified . Folds in rocks vary in size from microscopic crinkles to mountain-sized folds. They occur singly as isolated folds and in extensive fold trains of different sizes, on a variety of scales. Folds form under varied conditions of stress , hydrostatic pressure , pore pressure , and temperature gradient , as evidenced by their presence in soft sediments , the full spectrum of metamorphic rocks , and even as primary flow structures in some igneous rocks . A set of folds distributed on a regional scale constitutes a fold belt, a common feature of orogenic zones
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Volcanic
A VOLCANO is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object , such as Earth
Earth
, that allows hot lava , volcanic ash , and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging , and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge , such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
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Karl Kořistka
KARL KOřISTKA (also CARL KOřISTKA, in Czech : KAREL KOřISTKA, 7 February 1825 – 18 January 1906) was a Czech geographer , cartographer , mathematician and professor . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 Notes * 4 References BIOGRAPHYKořistka studied geography and mathematics in Vienna
Vienna
, and at an early age became a student at the school of mining and forestry at Banská Štiavnica . In 1851, he became professor of mathematics and geodesy in the German polytechnical school at Prague
Prague
. He exerted a wide influence in the development of the technical and professional schools of Austria. He was also much occupied in orographical and hypsometrical studies and explored several of the mountainous regions of Europe, where he obtained a large number of levels and heights. From 1867 to 1869, he was a representative in the Diet of Bohemia and in the Vienna
Vienna
Reichsrat
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Taiwan
TAIWAN (/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF CHINA (ROC), is a state in East Asia
East Asia
. Its neighbors include the People\'s Republic of China
China
(PRC) to the west, Japan
Japan
to the northeast, and the Philippines
Philippines
to the south. Taiwan
Taiwan
is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations
United Nations
. The island of Taiwan
Taiwan
, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning
Kingdom of Tungning
, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, the last dynasty of China
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Kamchatka
The KAMCHATKA PENINSULA (Russian : полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi). It lies between the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the east and the Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
to the west. Immediately offshore along the Pacific coast of the peninsula runs the 10,500-metre (34,400-ft) deep Kuril–Kamchatka Trench
Kuril–Kamchatka Trench
. The Kamchatka Peninsula, the Commander Islands , and Karaginsky Island constitute the Kamchatka Krai of the Russian Federation . The vast majority of the 322,079 inhabitants are ethnic Russians
Russians
, but there are also about 13,000 Koryaks (2014)
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Philippines
Coordinates : 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122 Republic
Republic
of the Philippines Republika ng Pilipinas Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: " Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa " "For God, People, Nature, and Country" ANTHEM: Lupang Hinirang
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Papua New Guinea
Coordinates : 6°S 147°E / 6°S 147°E / -6; 147 Independent State of Papua New Guinea * Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini * Papua Niu Gini Flag National emblem MOTTO: " Unity in diversity " ANTHEM: O Arise, All You Sons Location of Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
(green)


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Pacific Ring Of Fire
The RING OF FIRE is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. In a 40,000 km (25,000 mi) horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches , volcanic arcs , and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. It has 452 volcanoes (more than 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes ). The Ring of Fire is sometimes called the CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT. About 90% of the world's earthquakes and 81% of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The next most seismically active region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world's largest earthquakes) is the Alpide belt , which extends from Java
Java
to the northern Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
via the Himalayas
Himalayas
and southern Europe
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New Zealand
NEW ZEALAND (Māori : AOTEAROA ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island
North Island
(or Te Ika-a-Māui), and the South Island (or Te Waipounamu)—and around 600 smaller islands . New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia
New Caledonia
, Fiji
Fiji
, and Tonga
Tonga
. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand
New Zealand
developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life
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Fault-block Mountain
FAULT BLOCKS are very large blocks of rock, sometimes hundreds of kilometres in extent, created by tectonic and localized stresses in the Earth\'s crust . Large areas of bedrock are broken up into blocks by faults . Blocks are characterized by relatively uniform lithology . The largest of these fault blocks are called CRUSTAL BLOCKS. Large crustal blocks broken off from tectonic plates are called terranes . Those terranes which are the full thickness of the lithosphere are called microplates. Continent-sized blocks are called variously microcontinents, continental ribbons, H-blocks, extensional allochthons and outer highs. Because most stresses relate to the tectonic activity of moving plates , most motion between blocks is horizontal, that is parallel to the Earth's crust by strike-slip faults . However vertical movement of blocks produces much more dramatic results
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