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Mountain Jews
Mountain Jews
Jews
or Caucasus
Caucasus
Jews
Jews
also known as Juhuro, Juvuro, Juhuri, Juwuri, Juhurim, Kavkazi Jews
Jews
or Gorsky Jews
Jews
(Azerbaijani: Dağ Yəhudiləri, Hebrew: יהודי קווקז‬ Yehudey Kavkaz or יהודי ההרים‬ Yehudey he-Harim, Russian: Горские евреи, translit. Gorskie Yevrey[5]) are Jews
Jews
of the eastern and northern Caucasus, mainly Azerbaijan, Chechnya, Dagestan
Dagestan
and Ingushetia
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Israel
Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35State of Israelמְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew) دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic)FlagEmblemAnthem: "Hatikvah" (Hebrew for "The Hope")(pre-) 1967 border (Green Line)Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition)[fn 1] 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217Official languagesHebrew ArabicEthnic groups (2017)74.7% Jewish 20.8% Arab 4.5% other[5
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Sassanid
Temporarily controlled during the Byzantine– Sasanian
Sasanian
War of 602–628:  Abkhazia[12]  Russia (  Dagestan
Dagestan
and  Chechnya)  Turkey  Lebanon  Israel   Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
( West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza strip)[13]  Jordan  EgyptPart of a series on theHistory of IranMythological historyPishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynastyAncient periodBCPrehistory of Iran Ancient Times–4000Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000Proto-Elamite 3200–2700Jiroft culture c. 3100 – c. 2200Elam 2700–539 Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire 2400–2150Kassites c. 1500 – c
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Second Temple
The Second Temple
Second Temple
(Hebrew: בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי‎, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish
Jewish
Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE. According to Jewish tradition, it replaced Solomon's Temple
Solomon's Temple
(the First Temple), which was destroyed by the Babylonians
Babylonians
in 586 BCE, when Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was conquered and part of the population of the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
was taken into exile to Babylon. The Second Temple
Second Temple
was originally a rather modest structure constructed by a number of Jewish
Jewish
exile groups returning to the Levant from Babylon
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Ten Lost Tribes
The ten lost tribes were the ten of the twelve tribes of ancient Israel that were said to have been deported from the Kingdom of Israel after its conquest by the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
circa 722 BCE.[1] These are the tribes of Reuben, Simeon, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Manasseh and Ephraim
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Mosul
Mosul
Mosul
(Arabic: الموصل‎ al-Mawṣil, Kurdish: مووسڵ‎, Syriac: ܡܘܨܠ‎, translit. Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some 400 km (250 mi) north of Baghdad, Mosul
Mosul
stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh
Nineveh
on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul
Mosul
and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians,[4][5][6] Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians
Circassians
in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities
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Tigris River
The Tigris
Tigris
(/ˈtaɪɡrɪs/; Sumerian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼 Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼 Idiqlat; Arabic: دجلة‎ Dijlah [didʒlah]; Syriac: ܕܹܩܠܵܬ‎ Deqlaṯ; Armenian: Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ; Hebrew: Ḥîddeqel חידקל‎, biblical Hiddekel; Turkish: Dicle; Kurdish: Dîcle, Dîjla دیجلە‎) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates
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Nineveh
Nineveh
Nineveh
(/ˈnɪnɪvə/; Akkadian: 𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua) ; Syriac: ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ‎ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul
Mosul
in modern-day northern Iraq. It is located on the eastern bank of the Tigris
Tigris
River, and was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Nowadays it is a common name for the half of Mosul
Mosul
which lies on the eastern bank of the Tigris. It was the largest city in the world for some fifty years[1] until the year 612 BC when, after a bitter period of civil war in Assyria, it was sacked by a coalition of its former subject peoples, the Babylonians, Medes, Chaldeans, Persians, Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians. Its ruins are across the river from the modern-day major city of Mosul, in the Ninawa Governorate
Ninawa Governorate
of Iraq
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Shalmaneser V
Shalmaneser V
Shalmaneser V
(Akkadian: Šulmanu-ašarid; Hebrew: שַׁלְמַנְאֶסֶר‬, Modern Šalman’eser, Tiberian Šalmanʼéser; Greek: Σαλαμανασσαρ Salamanassar; Latin: Salmanasar) was king of Assyria
Assyria
from 727 to 722 BC. He first appears as governor of Zimirra in Phoenicia
Phoenicia
in the reign of his father, Tiglath-Pileser III. Evidence pertaining to his reign is scarce. On the death of Tiglath-Pileser, he succeeded to the throne of Assyria on the 25th day of Tebet 727 BC,[1] and changed his original name of Ululayu to the Akkadian name he is known by
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Assyria
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East
Near East
and the Levant
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Teip
Teip (also taip and taipa; Vaynakh тайпа taypa [ˈtajpə]: family, kin, clan, tribe[1]) is a Chechen and Ingush tribal organization or clan, self-identified through descent from a common ancestor and geographic location. There are about 130-233 teips (though some sources state that there may be as many as 300). More than 20 teips originated from newcomers, in particular Avars, Kumyks, Jews, Georgians, Russians, Turks. The taips descending of non-Ingush or non-Chechen ancestors are called impure teips (in other languages: söli taypa, соьли тайпа). A teip's internal dynamic is based on honor, and blood feuds play a major role
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Parthia
Parthia (Old Persian: 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺, Parθava, Parthian: 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅, Parθaw, Middle Persian: 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥‎, Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran. It was conquered and subjugated by the empire of the Medes during the 7th century BC, was incorporated into the subsequent Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC, and formed part of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire following the 4th-century-BC conquests of Alexander the Great. The region later served as the political and cultural base of the Eastern-Iranian Parni people and Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD)
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Nomadic
A nomad (Greek: νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.[2] Among the various ways nomads relate to their environment, one can distinguish the hunter-gatherer, the pastoral nomad owning livestock, or the "modern" peripatetic nomad. As of 1995, there were an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world.[3] Nomadic hunting and gathering, following seasonally available wild plants and game, is by far the oldest human subsistence method.[citation needed] Pastoralists raise herds, driving them, or moving with them, in patterns that normally avoid depleting pastures beyond their ability to recover.[citation needed] Nomadism is also a lifestyle adapted to infertile regions such as steppe, tundra, or ice and sand, where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources
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Sasanian Empire
Temporarily controlled during the Byzantine– Sasanian
Sasanian
War of 602–628:  Abkhazia[12]  Russia (  Dagestan
Dagestan
and  Chechnya)  Turkey  Lebanon  Israel   Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
( West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza strip)[13]  Jordan  EgyptPart of a series on theHistory of IranMythological historyPishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynastyAncient periodBCPrehistory of Iran Ancient Times–4000Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000Proto-Elamite 3200–2700Jiroft culture c. 3100 – c. 2200Elam 2700–539 Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire 2400–2150Kassites c. 1500 – c
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Pontic Steppe
The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe
Pontic steppe
or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos [Εὔξεινος Πόντος] in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova
Moldova
and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District
Southern Federal District
and the Volga Federal District
Volga Federal District
of Russia
Russia
to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe
Kazakh steppe
to the east. It is a part of the Palearctic temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregion of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. The area corresponds to Cimmeria, Scythia, and Sarmatia
Sarmatia
of classical antiquity
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Semitic People
Semites, Semitic people
Semitic people
or Semitic cultures
Semitic cultures
(from the biblical "Shem", Hebrew: שם‎) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.[2][3][4][5] First used in the 1770s by members of the Göttingen School of History, the terminology was derived from Shem, one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis,[6] together with the parallel terms Hamites
Hamites
and Japhetites
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