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Mountain
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level
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River
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features,[1] although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn" in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek,[2] but not always: the language is vague.[3] Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle
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Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world.[2][3] The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society
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Sea Level
Mean
Mean
sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.[1] Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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Igneous Rock
Igneous rock
Igneous rock
(derived from the Latin
Latin
word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock
Igneous rock
is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet's mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition
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Isostasy
Isostasy
Isostasy
(Greek ísos "equal", stásis "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density. This concept is invoked to explain how different topographic heights can exist at Earth's surface. When a certain area of Earth's crust reaches the state of isostasy, it is said to be in isostatic equilibrium. Isostasy
Isostasy
does not upset equilibrium but instead restores it (a negative feedback). It is generally accepted [1] that Earth
Earth
is a dynamic system that responds to loads in many different ways. However, isostasy provides an important 'view' of the processes that are happening in areas that are experiencing vertical movement
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UN Environmental Programme
The United Nations
United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices. It was founded by Maurice Strong, its first director, as a result of the United Nations
United Nations
Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference) in June 1972 and has overall responsibility for environmental problems among United Nations
United Nations
agencies but international talks on specialized issues, such as addressing climate change or combating desertification, are overseen by other UN organizations, like the Bonn-based Secretariat of the United Nations
United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change and the United Nations
United Nations
Convention to Combat Desertification
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Volcanism
Volcanism
Volcanism
is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.[1] It includes all phenomena resulting from and causing magma within the crust or mantle of the body, to rise through the crust and form volcanic rocks on the surface.Contents1 Volcanic processes 2 Driving forces of volcanism 3 Aspects of volcanism3.1 Volcanoes 3.2 Intrusions 3.3 Earthquakes 3.4 Hydrothermal
Hydrothermal
vents 3.5 Volcanic winter4 Forming rocks 5 Volcanism
Volcanism
on other bodies 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksVolcanic processes[edit]Non-viscous lava during an effusive eruption of Kīlauea Magma
Magma
from the mantle or lower crust rises through its crust towards the surface
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Mean Sea Level
Mean
Mean
sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.[1] Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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Weathering
Weathering
Weathering
is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms. Weathering
Weathering
occurs in situ (on site), that is, in the same place, with little or no movement, and thus should not be confused with erosion, which involves the movement of rocks and minerals by agents such as water, ice, snow, wind, waves and gravity and then being transported and deposited in other locations. Two important classifications of weathering processes exist – physical and chemical weathering; each sometimes involves a biological component. Mechanical or physical weathering involves the breakdown of rocks and soils through direct contact with atmospheric conditions, such as heat, water, ice and pressure
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Papua New Guinea
Coordinates: 6°S 147°E / 6°S 147°E / -6; 147Independent State of Papua New GuineaIndependen Stet bilong Papua Niugini Papua Niu GiniFlagNational emblemMotto: "Unity in diversity"[1]Anthem: O Arise, All You Sons [2]Location of  Papua New Guinea  (green)Capital and largest city Port Moresby 9°30′S 147°07′E / 9.500°S 147.117°E / -9.500; 147.117Official languages[3][4]Hiri Motu Tok Pisin PNG Sign Language EnglishDemonym Papua New GuineanGovernment Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor-GeneralBob Dadae• Prime MinisterPeter O'NeillLegislature National ParliamentIndependence from Australia• Papua and
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Mars
Mars
Mars
is the fourth planet from the Sun
Sun
and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System
Solar System
after Mercury. In English, Mars
Mars
carries a name of the Roman god of war, and is often referred to as the "Red Planet"[14][15] because the reddish iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance that is distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye.[16] Mars
Mars
is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon
Moon
and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars
Mars
are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons
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Solar System
The Solar System[a] is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun
Sun
and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly.[b] Of those objects that orbit the Sun
Sun
directly, the largest eight are the planets,[c] with the remainder being smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and small Solar System
Solar System
bodies. Of the objects that orbit the Sun
Sun
indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury.[d] The Solar System
Solar System
formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth
Earth
and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal
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Mount Scott (Oklahoma)
Mount
Mount
is often used as part of the name of specific mountains, e.g. Mount
Mount
Everest. Mount
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Ecosystem
An ecosystem can be defined as a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water and mineral soil.[2] However, ecosystems can be defined in many ways.[3] The biotic and abiotic components interact through nutrient cycles and energy flows.[4] Ecosystems include a network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment.[5] Ecosystems can be of any size but one ecosystem has a specific, limited space.[6] Some scientists view the entire planet as one ecosystem.[7] Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of an ecosystem. The energy that flows through ecosystems comes primarily from the sun, through photosynthesis. Photosynthesis also captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Animals also play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through ecoystems. They influence the amount of plant and microbial biomass that lives in the system
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United States Geological Survey
The United States
United States
Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people[2] and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia
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