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Mountain
A MOUNTAIN is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill . Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism . These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers , weather conditions , and glaciers . A few mountains are isolated summits , but most occur in huge mountain ranges . High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level . These colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals . Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing
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River
A RIVER is a natural flowing watercourse , usually freshwater , flowing towards an ocean , sea , lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream , creek, brook, rivulet, and rill . There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features , although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn " in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle
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Weathering
WEATHERING is the breaking down of rocks , soil , and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth\'s atmosphere , waters, and biological organisms. Weathering occurs in situ (on site), that is, in the same place, with little or no movement, and thus should not be confused with erosion , which involves the movement of rocks and minerals by agents such as water, ice, snow, wind, waves and gravity and then being transported and deposited in other locations. Two important classifications of weathering processes exist – physical and chemical weathering; each sometimes involves a biological component. Mechanical or physical weathering involves the breakdown of rocks and soils through direct contact with atmospheric conditions, such as heat, water, ice and pressure
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Mean Sea Level
MEAN SEA LEVEL (MSL) (abbreviated simply SEA LEVEL) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth\'s oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation , or, in aviation , as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured in order to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels . A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales . The careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change , and sea level rise has been widely quoted as evidence of ongoing global warming
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Sea Level
MEAN SEA LEVEL (MSL) (abbreviated simply SEA LEVEL) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth\'s oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation , or, in aviation , as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured in order to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels . A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales . The careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change , and sea level rise has been widely quoted as evidence of ongoing global warming
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UN Environmental Programme
The UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices . It was founded by Maurice Strong , its first director, as a result of the United Nations
United Nations
Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference) in June 1972 and Environment has overall responsibility for environmental problems among United Nations agencies but international talks on specialized issues, such as addressing global warming or combating desertification, are overseen by other UN organizations, like the Bonn-based Secretariat of the United Nations
United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
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Volcanism
VOLCANISM is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma ) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava , pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent. It includes all phenomena resulting from and causing magma within the crust or mantle of the body, to rise through the crust and form volcanic rocks on the surface
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Isostasy
ISOSTASY (Greek ísos "equal", stásis "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth
Earth
's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density. This concept is invoked to explain how different topographic heights can exist at Earth's surface. When a certain area of Earth's crust reaches the state of isostasy, it is said to be in isostatic equilibrium. Isostasy
Isostasy
does not upset equilibrium but instead restores it (a negative feedback). It is generally accepted that Earth
Earth
is a dynamic system that responds to loads in many different ways. However, isostasy provides an important 'view' of the processes that are happening in areas that are experiencing vertical movement
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Oxford English Dictionary
The OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language
English language
, published by the Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society
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Mars
7006339620000000000♠3,396.2±0.1 km   0.533 Earths POLAR RADIUS 7006337620000000000♠3,376.2±0.1 km   0.531 Earths FLATTENING 6997589000000000000♠0.00589±0.00015 SURFACE AREA 7014144798500000000♠144,798,500 km2 0.284 Earths VOLUME 7020163180000000000♠1.6318×1011 km3 0.151 Earths MASS 7023641710000000000♠6.4171×1023 kg 0.107 Earths MEAN DENSITY 7000393350000000000♠3.9335±0.0004 g/cm³ SURFACE GRAVITY 7000371100000000000♠3.711 m/s² 0.376 g MOMENT OF INERTIA FACTOR 6999366200000000000♠0.3662±0.0017 ESCAPE VELOCITY 5.027 km/s SIDEREAL ROTATION PERIOD 7004886426848000000♠1.025957 d 24h 37m 22s EQUATORIAL ROTATION VELOCITY 868.22 km/h (241.17 m/s) AXIAL TILT 25.19° to its orbital plane NORTH POLE RIGHT ASCENSION 21h 10m 44s 7000554458692594390♠317.68143°


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Solar System
The SOLAR SYSTEM is the gravitationally -bound system comprising the Sun
Sun
and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of those objects that orbit the Sun
Sun
directly, the largest eight are the planets , with the remainder being significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and small Solar System
Solar System
bodies . Of the objects that orbit the Sun
Sun
indirectly, the moons , two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury . The Solar System
Solar System
formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud . The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter
Jupiter

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Ecosystem
An ECOSYSTEM is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem). Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of an ecosystem. The energy that flows through ecosystems is obtained primarily from the sun. It generally enters the system through photosynthesis , a process that also captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. By feeding on plants and on one another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system
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United States Geological Survey
The UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (USGS, formerly simply GEOLOGICAL SURVEY) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government . The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States
United States
, its natural resources , and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology , geography , geology , and hydrology . The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior ; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston , Virginia . The USGS also has major offices near Lakewood , Colorado
Colorado
, at the Denver Federal Center , and Menlo Park , California
California

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Olympus Mons
OLYMPUS MONS ( /əˌlɪmpəs ˈmɒnz, oʊ-, -ˈmɒns/ ; Latin
Latin
for Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
) is a very large shield volcano on the planet Mars
Mars
. By one measure, it has a height of nearly 22 km (13.6 mi or 72,000 ft). Olympus Mons
Olympus Mons
stands about two and a half times as tall as Mount Everest 's height above sea level. It is the tallest mountain in the Solar System
Solar System
. It is the youngest of the large volcanoes on Mars, having formed during Mars's Hesperian Period . It is currently the largest volcano discovered in the Solar System
Solar System
and had been known to astronomers since the late 19th century as the albedo feature NIX OLYMPICA ( Latin
Latin
for "Olympic Snow"). Its mountainous nature was suspected well before space probes confirmed its identity as a mountain
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Summit (topography)
A SUMMIT is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically , a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak" , and "zenith " are synonymous . CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Western United States * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DEFINITIONThe term "summit" is generally used only for a mountain peak with some significant amount of topographic prominence (height above the lowest point en route to the nearest higher peak) or topographic isolation (distance from the nearest point of higher elevation); for example, a boulder next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain
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Earth
EARTH is the third planet from the Sun
Sun
and the only object in the Universe
Universe
known to harbor life . According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth
Earth
formed over 4 billion years ago . Earth\'s gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun
Sun
and the Moon
Moon
, Earth's only natural satellite . Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth
Earth
year . During this time, Earth
Earth
rotates about its axis about 366.26 times. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface
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