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Mount Whitney
Mount Whitney
Mount Whitney
is the tallest mountain in California, as well as the highest summit in the contiguous United States
United States
and the Sierra Nevada—with an elevation of 14,505 feet (4,421 m).[5] It is located on the boundary be
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Tree Line
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. It is found at high elevations and in frigid environments. Beyond the tree line, trees cannot tolerate the environmental conditions (usually cold temperatures or lack of moisture).[1]:51 The tree line should not be confused with a lower timberline or forest line, which is the line where trees form a forest with a closed canopy.[2]:151[3]:18 At the tree line, tree growth is often sparse and stunted, with the last trees forming densely matted bushes, known as krummholz (German for "crooked wood").[4]:58 The tree line, like many other natural lines (lake boundaries, for example), appears well-defined from a distance, but upon sufficiently close inspection, it is a gradual transition in most places
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First Ascent
In mountaineering, a first ascent (abbreviated to FA in guidebooks) is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks, challenges, and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others. The person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent (or first free ascent, abbreviated FFA) of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting.Contents1 History 2 Related terms 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The details of the first ascents of even many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown; sometimes the only evidence of prior summiting is a cairn, artifacts, or inscriptions at the top
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Mountain Range
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usually an orogeny.[1] Mountain
Mountain
ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth
Earth
are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain
Mountain
ranges are also found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System
Solar System
and are likely a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain
Mountain
ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology
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Topographic Map
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is typically published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map
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United States Geological Survey
The United States
United States
Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people[2] and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia
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Geologic Time Scale
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time. It is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth
Earth
scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth's history
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Cretaceous
The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
( /krɪˈteɪʃəs/, kri-TAY-shəs) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk). The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared
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List Of Mountain Types
Mountains and hills can be characterized in several ways. Some mountains are volcanoes and can be characterized by the type of lava and eruptive history. Other mountains are shaped by glacial processes and can be characterized by their shape
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Granite
Granite
Granite
( /ˈɡrænɪt/) is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin
Latin
granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar. The term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin
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Normal Route
A normal route or normal way (French: Voie Normale; German: Normalweg) is the most frequently used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is usually the simplest route.[1][2] In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking, construction and upkeep:Footpaths (Fußwege) Hiking trails (Wanderwege) Mountain trails (Bergwege) Alpine routes (Alpine Routen) Climbing
Climbing
routes (Kletterrouten) and High Alpine routes (Hochalpine Routen) in combined rock and ice terrain, (UIAA) graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one that is most used. There may be technically easier variations. This is especially the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter
Hochkalter
and also Mount Everest
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Yosemite Decimal System
The Yosemite Decimal System (YDS) is a three-part system used for rating the difficulty of walks, hikes, and climbs, primarily used by mountaineers in the United States
United States
and Canada. It was first devised by members of the Sierra Club
Sierra Club
in Southern California
Southern California
in the 1950s as a refinement of earlier systems, particularly those developed in Yosemite Valley, and quickly spread throughout North America. The class 5 portion of the class scale is primarily a rock climbing classification system, while the classes 1-3 are used mainly in hiking and trail running. Class 4 is an "in-between" rating that describes a very exposed scramble, corresponding roughly to the IFAS classification of PD+. Originally the system was a single-part classification system. "Grade" and "protection" categories were later added to the system
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List Of Mountain Lists
Perhaps the first of what would become many notable mountain lists around the world was Sir Hugh Munro’s catalog of the Munros, the peaks above 3,000’ in Scotland).[1] Once defined the list became a popular target for what became known as peak bagging, where the adventurous attempted to summit all of the peaks on the list.[2] Over time the peaks on such lists grew more challenging
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Contiguous United States
The contiguous United States
United States
consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states plus Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
(federal district), on the continent of North America.[1] The term excludes the non-contiguous states of Alaska
Alaska
and Hawaii, and all off-shore insular areas.[2][3] The greatest distance (on a great circle route) entirely within the 48 contiguous states is 2,802 miles (4,509 km, between Florida
Florida
and the State of Washington);[4] the greatest north-south line is 1,650 miles (2,660 km).[5] Together, the 48 contiguous states and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
occupy a combined area of 3,119,884.69 square miles (8,080,464.3 km2), which is 1.58% of the total surface area of Earth. Of this area, 2,959,064.44 square miles (7,663,941.7 km2) is contiguous land, composing 83.65% of total U.S
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Happy Isles
Coordinates: 37°43′54″N 119°33′31″W / 37.73171°N 119.558694°W / 37.73171; -119.558694The Merced River
Merced River
in Happy IslesTopographic map of Happy Isles
Happy Isles
area Happy Isles
Happy Isles
is a group of small isles in the Merced River
Merced River
in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. They are located at the easternmost end of the Yosemite Valley
Yosemite Valley
floor. This scenic spot is the starting point for the Mist Trail, and is also the northern trailhead for the John Muir
John Muir
Trail.[1] Happy Isles
Happy Isles
is located where the slope of the Merced River
Merced River
changes from the much steeper upper main stem to the essentially flat Valley floor. At Happy Isles, the river gradient is approximately 2%
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