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Mount Tongariro
Mount Tongariro
Mount Tongariro
(/ˈtɒŋɡəˌrɛ.roʊ/; Māori pronunciation: [tɔŋaɾiɾɔ]) is a compound volcano in the Taupo Volcanic Zone
Taupo Volcanic Zone
of the North Island
North Island
of New Zealand. It is located 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the southwest of Lake Taupo, and is the northernmost of the three active volcanoes that dominate the landscape of the central North Island.Contents1 Geology 2 History2.1 2012 Te Māri eruptions3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksGeology[edit] Mount Tongariro
Mount Tongariro
is part of the Tongariro volcanic centre, which consists of four massifs made of andesite: Tongariro, Kakaramea, Pihanga, and Ruapehu.[4] The andesitic eruptions formed Tongariro, a steep stratovolcano, reaching a height of 1,978 metres (6,490 ft)
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Taupo
Taupo
Taupo
(/ˈtaʊpoʊ/; Māori pronunciation: [ˈtoʊpɔː]); also spelled Taupō) is a town on the shore of Lake Taupo, which occupies the caldera of the Taupo Volcano
Taupo Volcano
in the centre of the North Island
North Island
of New Zealand. It is the seat of the Taupo District
Taupo District
Council and lies in the southern Waikato
Waikato
Region. Taupo
Taupo
has a population of 24,500 (June 2017).[1] In 1953, Taupo
Taupo
was officially constituted as a borough,[2] but from 1989 it has been administered by the Taupo District
Taupo District
Council, the district including both Taupo
Taupo
itself and the surrounding hinterland. Despite this, it is occasionally referred to as a city
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Suomi NPP
National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project← NOAA-19 NOAA-20 →The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP, previously known as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) and NPP-Bridge, is a weather satellite operated by the United States
United States
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Originally intended as a pathfinder for the NPOESS
NPOESS
program, which was to have replaced NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites and the U.S. Air Force's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, Suomi was launched in 2011 after the cancellation of NPOESS
NPOESS
to serve as a gapfiller between the POES satellites and the Joint Polar Satellite System
Joint Polar Satellite System
which will replace them
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Last Glacial Maximum
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
(LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension. Vast ice sheets covered much of North America, northern Europe, and Asia. The ice sheets profoundly affected Earth's climate by causing drought, desertification, and a dramatic drop in sea levels.[1] Growth of the ice sheets reached its maximum at about 26.5 kBP. Deglaciation commenced in the Northern Hemisphere at approximately 20 kBP and in Antarctica
Antarctica
approximately at 14.5 kBP, which is consistent with evidence that it was the primary source for an abrupt rise in the sea level at about 14.5 kBP.[2] The LGM is referred to in Britain as the Dimlington Stadial i
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Te Heuheu Tukino IV
Te Heuheu Tukino IV (Horonuku, Pataatai) (1821–1888) was paramount chief of the Ngāti Tuwharetoa, a Māori tribe of the central North Island of New Zealand. His birth name was Pataatai but he assumed the name Horonuku - meaning landslide - after the death of his parents in a landslide in 1846. He was placed under house arrest by the Crown and forced to gift the mountains of Ruapehu, Tongariro
Tongariro
and Ngauruhoe
Ngauruhoe
in 1887 for the creation of Tongariro
Tongariro
National Park. Horonuku's father, Mananui (Tukino II), was a famous warrior who led the tribe successfully in many wars. Mananui stood well over two metres tall and was heavily built, and was not only a formidable warrior but also a fine military tactician
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Māori People
A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation. Collectively, for example, the contemporary Frisians
Frisians
and Danes
Danes
are two related Germanic peoples, while various Middle Eastern ethnic groups are often linguistically categorized as Semitic peoples.Contents1 In politics 2 In law 3 See also 4 ReferencesIn politics Main article: Commoner Liberty Leading the People
Liberty Leading the People
by Eugène DelacroixVarious states govern, or claim to govern, in the name of the people. Both the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
used the Latin
Latin
term Senatus Populusque Romanus, (the Senate and People
People
of Rome)
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Iwi
Iwi (Māori pronunciation: [ˈiwi]) are the largest social units in New Zealand
New Zealand
Māori society. The Māori language
Māori language
word iwi means "people" or "nation",[1] and is often translated as "tribe",[2] or a confederation of tribes. The word iwi is both singular and plural in Māori. Most Māori in pre-European times gave their primary allegiance to relatively small groups such as hapū ("sub-tribe")[3] and whānau ("family").[4] Iwi groups trace their ancestry to the original Polynesian migrants who, according to tradition, arrived from Hawaiki. Some iwi cluster into larger groupings based on genealogical tradition, known as waka (literally: "canoes", with reference to the original migration voyages), but these super-groupings generally serve symbolic rather than practical functions. Each iwi contains a number of hapū
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World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area)
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Hiking
Hiking
Hiking
is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" is acceptable to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps. The word hiking is also often used in the UK, along with rambling (a slightly old-fashioned term), hillwalking, and fell walking (a term mostly used for hillwalking in northern England)
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Peter Jackson
Sir Peter Robert Jackson ONZ KNZM (born 31 October 1961) is a New Zealand film director, screenwriter and film producer. He is best known as the director, writer, and producer of The Lord of the Rings trilogy (2001–03) and The Hobbit
The Hobbit
trilogy (2012–14), both of which are adapted from the novels of the same name by J. R. R. Tolkien. Other films include the critically lauded drama Heavenly Creatures (1994), the mockumentary film Forgotten Silver
Forgotten Silver
(1995), the horror comedy The Frighteners
The Frighteners
(1996), the epic monster remake film King Kong (2005), and the supernatural drama film The Lovely Bones
The Lovely Bones
(2009)
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The Lord Of The Rings (film Series)
The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings
is a film series consisting of three high fantasy adventure films directed by Peter Jackson. They are based on the novel The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings
by J. R. R. Tolkien. The films are subtitled The Fellowship of the Ring
The Fellowship of the Ring
(2001), The Two Towers
The Two Towers
(2002) and The Return of the King
The Return of the King
(2003)
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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UTC+12
UTC+12:00 is an identifier for a +12 hour time offset from UTC.Contents1 As standard time (all year round)1.1 North Asia 1.2 Oceania2 As standard time (winter in Southern Hemisphere)2.1 Oceania 2.2 Antarctica3 Historical changes 4 See also 5 ReferencesAs standard time (all year round)[edit] Principal cities: Anadyr North Asia[edit] Russia
Russia
– Kamchatka TimeChukotka Autonomous Okrug Kamchatka KraiOceania[edit] Wake Island
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Summit
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Sulphur
Sulfur
Sulfur
is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. Sulfur
Sulfur
is the tenth most common element by mass in the universe, and the fifth most common on Earth. Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on Earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India, ancient Greece, China, and Egypt
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Napier, New Zealand
Napier (/ˈneɪpiər/ NAY-pi-ər; Māori: Ahuriri) is a New Zealand city with a seaport, located in Hawke's Bay on the eastern coast of the North Island. The population of Napier is about 63,100 as of the June 2017.[1] About 18 kilometres (11 mi) south of Napier is the inland city of Hastings. These two neighbouring cities are often called "The Bay Cities" or "The Twin Cities" of New Zealand. The total population of the Napier-Hastings Urban Area
Napier-Hastings Urban Area
is 133,000 people, which makes it the sixth-largest urban area in New Zealand, closely followed by Dunedin
Dunedin
(120,200), and trailing the Hamilton Urban Area
Hamilton Urban Area
(235,900), and Tauranga
Tauranga
(137,900). Napier is about 320 kilometres (200 mi) northeast of the capital city of Wellington
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