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Mount Mazama
Mount Mazama
Mount Mazama
is a complex volcano in the Oregon
Oregon
segment of the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Cascade Range
Cascade Range
located in the United States. The volcano's collapsed caldera holds Crater Lake, and the entire mountain is located within Crater Lake
Crater Lake
National Park. Its caldera was created by an eruption 42 times greater than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Mazama's summit was destroyed by a volcanic eruption that occurred around 5677 BC, ± 150 years.[1][3] The eruption reduced Mazama's approximate 12,000-foot (3,700 m) height by about 1 mile (1,600 m). Much of the volcano fell into the volcano's partially emptied neck and magma chamber
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Magma Chamber
A magma chamber is a large pool of liquid rock beneath the surface of the Earth. The molten rock, or magma, in such a chamber is under great pressure, and, given enough time, that pressure can gradually fracture the rock around it, creating a way for the magma to move upward. If it finds its way to the surface, then the result will be a volcanic eruption; consequently, many volcanoes are situated over magma chambers. These chambers are hard to detect deep within the Earth, and therefore most of those known are close to the surface, commonly between 1 km and 10 km down. Dynamics of magma chambers[edit]Magma chambers above a subducting plateMagma rises through cracks from beneath and across the crust because it is less dense than the surrounding rock. When the magma cannot find a path upwards it pools into a magma chamber. These chambers are commonly built up over time,[1][2] by successive horizontal[3] or vertical[4] magma injections
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Wilderness Area
A wilderness area is a region where the land is in a natural state; where impacts from human activities are minimal—that is, as a wilderness. It might also be called a wild or natural area. Especially in wealthier, industrialized nations, it has a specific legal meaning as well: as land where development is prohibited by law. Many nations have designated Wilderness
Wilderness
Areas, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa
South Africa
and the United States. The WILD Foundation states that wilderness areas have two dimensions: they must be biologically intact and legally protected
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Yreka, California
Yreka (/waɪˈriːkə/ wy-REE-kə) is the county seat of Siskiyou County, California, United States, located near the Shasta River
Shasta River
at 2,500 feet (760 m) above sea level and covering about 10.1 sq mi (26 km2) area, of which most is land. As of the 2010 United States
United States
Census, the population was 7,765, reflecting an increase of 475 from the 7,290 counted in the 2000 Census. Yreka is home to the College of the Siskiyous, Klamath National Forest Interpretive Museum and the Siskiyou County Museum
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USGS
The United States
United States
Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people[2] and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia
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Summit
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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U.S. State
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States. There are currently 50 states, which are bound together in a union with each other. Each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the United States federal government. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans
Americans
are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside.[3] State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders (e.g., paroled convicts and children of divorced spouses who are sharing custody)
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California
Native languages as of 2007English 57.4%[2] Spanish 28.5%[3] Chinese 2.8%[3] Filipino 2.2%[3]Demonym CalifornianCapital SacramentoLargest city Los AngelesLargest metro Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
AreaArea Ranked 3rd • Total 163,696 sq mi (423,970 km2) • Width 250 miles (400 km) • Length 770 miles (1,240 km) • % water 4.7 • Latitude 32°32′ N to 42° N • Longitude 114°8′ W to 124°26′ W
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Global Volcanism Program
The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism
Volcanism
Program (GVP) documents Earth's volcanoes and their eruptive history over the past 10,000 years. The GVP reports on current eruptions from around the world as well as maintaining a database repository on active volcanoes and their eruptions. In this way, a global context for the planet's active volcanism is presented. Smithsonian reporting on current volcanic activity dates back to 1968, with the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP). The GVP is housed in the Department of Mineral Sciences, part of the National Museum of Natural History, on the National Mall
National Mall
in Washington, D.C. During the early stages of an eruption, the GVP acts as a clearing house of reports, data, and imagery which are accumulated from a global network of contributors
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Geographic Names Information System
The Geographic Names Information System
Geographic Names Information System
(GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States
United States
of America and its territories. It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States
United States
Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States
United States
Board on Geographic Names (BGN) to promote the standardization of feature names. The database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited. Variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are also recorded
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National Park Service
The National Park Service
National Park Service
(NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.[1] It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service
National Park Service
Organic Act[2] and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior
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Volcano
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.[1] Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
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Moraine
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes. Moraines are formed from debris previously carried along by a glacier and normally consist of somewhat rounded particles ranging in size from large boulders to minute glacial flour. Lateral moraines are formed at the side of the ice flow and terminal moraines at the foot, marking the maximum advance of the glacier
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Glacial Striation
Glacial striations are scratches or gouges cut into bedrock by glacial abrasion. These scratches and gouges were first recognized as the result of a moving glacier in the late 18th century when Swiss alpinists first associated them with moving glaciers. They also noted that if they were visible today that the glaciers must also be receding.[1] Glacial striations are usually multiple, straight, and parallel, representing the movement of the glacier using rock fragments and sand grains, embedded in the base of the glacier, as cutting tools. Large amounts of coarse gravel and boulders carried along underneath the glacier provide the abrasive power to cut trough-like glacial grooves. Finer sediments also in the base of the moving glacier further scour and polish the bedrock surface, forming a glacial pavement
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Pinus Ponderosa
Pinus
Pinus
ponderosa, commonly known as the ponderosa pine,[2] bull pine, blackjack pine,[3] or western yellow-pine,[4] is a very large pine tree species of variable habitat native to the western United States and Canada. It is the most widely distributed pine species in North America.[5]:4 It grows in various erect forms from British Columbia
British Columbia
southward and eastward through 16 western U.S. states and has been successfully introduced in temperate regions of Europe. It was first documented into modern science in 1826 in eastern Washington near present-day Spokane (of which it is the official city tree). On that occasion, David Douglas misidentified it as Pinus
Pinus
resinosa (red pine). In 1829, Douglas concluded that he had a new pine among his specimens and coined the name Pinus
Pinus
ponderosa[6] for its heavy wood
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Mixed Coniferous Forest
Mixed coniferous forest is a vegetation type dominated by a mixture of broadleaf trees and conifers.[1] It is generally located in mountains, below the upper montane vegetation type.Contents1 Sierra Nevada range 2 See also 3 References 4 See alsoSierra Nevada range[edit] In the Sierra Nevada mountain range of the western United States, the mixed coniferous forest is found at elevations of 1,200–5,500 feet (370–1,680 m) in the north, 2,000–6,500 feet (610–1,980 m) in central areas, and 2,500–9,000 feet (760–2,740 m) in the south.[1] Characteristic conifers include Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa), Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana), Incense Cedar (Calocedrus decurrens), White Fir (Abies concolor), Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and Giant Sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum) in pockets
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