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Mount Mazama
MOUNT MAZAMA is a volcano in the Oregon
Oregon
segment of the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Cascade Range located in the United States
United States
. The volcano 's collapsed caldera holds Crater Lake , and the entire mountain is located within Crater Lake National Park . Its caldera was created by an eruption 42 times greater than the one of Mount St. Helens in 1980. Mazama's summit was destroyed by a volcanic eruption that occurred around 5677 BC, ± 150 years. The eruption reduced Mazama's approximate 12,000-foot (3,700 m) height by about 1 mile (1,600 m). Much of the volcano fell into the volcano's partially emptied neck and magma chamber . At 8,159 feet (2,487 m), Hillman Peak is now the highest point on the rim. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Name * 3 Geology * 3.1 Growth phase * 3.2 Silica
Silica
enrichment * 3.3 Explosive phase * 3.4 Aftermath * 3.5 Post-collapse phase * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References HISTORYThe Klamath Native Americans of the area believed that the mountain was inhabited by Llao , their god of the underworld . After the mountain destroyed itself the Klamaths recounted the events as a great battle between Llao and his rival Skell, their sky god
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Crater Lake
A CRATER LAKE is a lake that forms in a volcanic crater or caldera , such as a maar ; less commonly and with lower association to the term a lake may form in an impact crater caused by a meteorite, or in the crater left by an artificial explosion caused by humans. Sometimes lakes which form inside calderas are called CALDERA LAKES, but often this distinction is not made. Crater lakes covering active (fumarolic ) volcanic vents are sometimes known as VOLCANIC LAKES, and the water within them is often acidic , saturated with volcanic gases , and cloudy with a strong greenish color. For example, the crater lake of Kawah Ijen in Indonesia
Indonesia
has a pH of under 0.5. Lakes located in dormant or extinct volcanoes tend to have fresh water, and the water clarity in such lakes can be exceptional due to the lack of inflowing streams and sediment. CONTENTS* 1 Formation * 1.1 Volcanic crater
Volcanic crater
lakes * 1.2 Other kinds of crater lakes * 1.3 Other geological features that can be mistaken for a crater lake * 2 List of volcanic crater lakes * 3 List of meteor crater lakes * 4 List of artificial crater lakes * 5 List of crater lakes of unclear origin * 6 See also * 7 References * 7.1 Further reading * 8 External links FORMATIONVOLCANIC CRATER LAKESCrater lakes form as the created depression, within the crater rim , is filled by water
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Summit
A SUMMIT is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically , a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak" , and "zenith " are synonymous . CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Western United States * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DEFINITIONThe term "summit" is generally used only for a mountain peak with some significant amount of topographic prominence (height above the lowest point en route to the nearest higher peak) or topographic isolation (distance from the nearest point of higher elevation); for example, a boulder next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered _subsummits_ (or _subpeaks_) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. The UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres (98 ft ) or more; it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres (980 ft). This can be summarised as follows: TERM PROMINENCE ISOLATION Subpeak < 30 m ? m Independent peak or summit 30 m or more ? m Mountain 300 m or more ? mA pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may also refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route
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List Of Mountain Lists
There are many notable MOUNTAIN LISTS around the world. Typically, a list of mountains becomes notable by first being listed or defined by an author or group (e.g. Sir Hugh Munro defining the Munros in Scotland ). This list then becomes a popular target for peak bagging , where a number of people attempt to climb all of the peaks in the list. Alternatively, a list of mountains may become notable in the mountaineering community as a challenge. An example of such a challenge list is the Seven Summits defined by Richard Bass . Examples of notable lists of mountains are shown below. CONTENTS * 1 Worldwide * 2 Europe * 3 British Isles * 4 North America * 4.1 Canada * 4.2 Mexico * 4.3 United States * 5 Central America * 5.1 Guatemala * 6 South America * 7 Asia * 7.1 China * 7.2 Japan * 7.3 Indonesia * 7.4 Taiwan * 8 Australia * 9 See also * 10 References WORLDWIDE * The Eight-thousanders are the fourteen mountains over 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) in height, all in the Himalaya and Karakoram ranges in Asia . * The Seven Summits are the highest peaks on each continent , from the Vinson Massif in Antarctica to Everest in Asia . * The Seven Second Summits are the second highest peaks on each continent
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List Of Mountains Of Oregon
The mountains in the U.S
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Klamath County, Oregon
KLAMATH COUNTY (/ˈklæməθ/ KLAM-əth ) is a county in the U.S. state of Oregon
Oregon
. As of the 2010 census , the population was 66,380. The county seat is Klamath Falls . The county was named for the Klamath , the tribe of Native Americans living in the area at the time the first European explorers entered the region. Klamath County comprises the Klamath Falls, OR Micropolitan Statistical Area . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 2.1 Adjacent counties * 2.2 National protected areas * 3 Demographics * 3.1 2000 census * 3.2 2010 census * 4 Communities * 4.1 Cities * 4.2 Census-designated places * 4.3 Other unincorporated communities * 5 Government * 5.1 Politics * 6 Economy * 7 Education * 7.1 Colleges and universities * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORYThe Klamath or Clamitte tribe of Indians, for which Klamath County was named, are the descendants of varying cultures of indigenous peoples , who have lived in the area for more than 10,000 years. When European- Americans began to travel through the area in 1846 along the Applegate Trail , they competed with the Klamath for game and water, which precipitated clashes between the peoples. This was exacerbated by European-American settlers, who cleared the land to farm and encroached on hunting territory
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " ( Latin
Latin
) (de facto) "Out of many, one" * " Annuit c
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Mountain Range
A MOUNTAIN RANGE also called MOUNTAINS or MOUNTAIN BARRIER/BELT/SYSTEM, is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains . A mountain system or system of mountain ranges, sometimes is used to combine several geological features that are geographically (regionally) related. On Earth, most significant mountain ranges are the result of plate tectonics , though mountain ranges are formed by a range of processes, are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are likely a feature of most terrestrial planets . Mountain ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys . Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology . They may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes , for example thrust sheets , uplifted blocks , fold mountains, and volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types . CONTENTS * 1 Major ranges * 2 Divisions and categories * 3 Climate * 4 Erosion * 5 Extraterrestrial "Montes" * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links MAJOR RANGES An 1865 lithograph showing the High Tatras mountain range in Slovakia and Poland by Karel Kořistka appearing in a book by August Heinrich Petermann
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Cascade Range
The CASCADE RANGE or CASCADES is a major mountain range of western North America
North America
, extending from southern British Columbia
British Columbia
through Washington and Oregon
Oregon
to Northern California
California
. It includes both non-volcanic mountains, such as the North Cascades, and the notable volcanoes known as the HIGH CASCADES. The small part of the range in British Columbia
British Columbia
is referred to as the CANADIAN CASCADES or, locally, as the CASCADE MOUNTAINS. The latter term is also sometimes used by Washington residents to refer to the Washington section of the Cascades in addition to NORTH CASCADES, the more usual U.S. term, as in North CascadesNational Park . The highest peak in the range is Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
in Washington at 14,411 feet (4,392 m). The Cascades are part of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
's Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
, the ring of volcanoes and associated mountains around the Pacific Ocean. All of the eruptions in the contiguous United States over the last 200 years have been from Cascade volcanoes . The two most recent were Lassen Peak from 1914 to 1921 and a major eruption of Mount St. Helensin 1980 . Minor eruptions of Mount St. Helenshave also occurred since, most recently from 2004 to 2008
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Topographic Map
In modern mapping, a TOPOGRAPHIC MAP is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief , usually using contour lines , but historically using a variety of methods . Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is typically published as a map series , made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps: These maps depict in detail ground relief (landforms and terrain), drainage (lakes and rivers), forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities (including roads and railways), and other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map; they are distinguished from smaller-scale "chorographic maps" that cover large regions, "planimetric maps" that do not show elevations, and "thematic maps " that focus on specific topics. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief (contours) is popularly held to define the genre, such that even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly (and erroneously, in the technical sense) called "topographic"
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United States Geological Survey
The UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (USGS, formerly simply GEOLOGICAL SURVEY) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government . The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States
United States
, its natural resources , and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology , geography , geology , and hydrology . The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior ; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston , Virginia . The USGS also has major offices near Lakewood , Colorado
Colorado
, at the Denver Federal Center , and Menlo Park , California
California
. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science
Science
in the Public Service." CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 List of USGS directors * 2 Programs * 2.1 Topographic mapping * 3 The National Map and U.S
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List Of Mountain Types
Mountains and hills can be characterized in several ways. Some mountains are volcanoes and can be characterized by the type of lava and eruptive history. Other mountains are shaped by glacial processes and can be characterized by their shape. Finally, many mountains can be characterized by the type of rock that make up their composition
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Caldera
A CALDERA is a large cauldron -like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber /reservoir. When large volumes of magma are erupted over a short time period, structural support for the crust above the magma chamber is lost. The ground surface then collapses downward into the partially emptied magma chamber, leaving a massive depression at the surface (from one to dozens of kilometers in diameter). Although sometimes described as a crater , the feature is actually a type of sinkhole , as it is formed through subsidence and collapse rather than an explosion or impact. Only seven known caldera-forming collapses have occurred since the start of the 20th century, most recently at Bárðarbunga volcano in Iceland. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Caldera
Caldera
formation * 2.1 Mineralization * 2.2 Explosive caldera eruptions * 2.2.1 Toba * 2.3 Non-explosive calderas * 3 Extraterrestrial calderas * 3.1 The Moon
Moon
* 3.2 Mars
Mars
* 3.3 Venus
Venus
* 3.4 Io * 4 List of volcanic calderas * 5 Erosion calderas * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word comes from Spanish _caldera_, and Latin
Latin
_caldaria_, meaning "cooking pot"
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Volcanic Arc
A VOLCANIC ARC is a chain of volcanoes formed above a subducting plate , positioned in an arc shape as seen from above. Offshore volcanoes form islands, resulting in a volcanic island arc . Generally, volcanic arcs result from the subduction of an oceanic tectonic plate under another tectonic plate, and often parallel an oceanic trench . The oceanic plate is saturated with water, and volatiles such as water drastically lower the melting point of the mantle . As the oceanic plate is subducted, it is subjected to greater and greater pressures with increasing depth. This pressure squeezes water out of the plate and introduces it to the mantle. Here the mantle melts and forms magma at depth under the overriding plate. The magma ascends to form an arc of volcanoes parallel to the subduction zone. These should not be confused with hotspot volcanic chains, where volcanoes often form one after another in the middle of a tectonic plate, as the plate moves over the hotspot, and so the volcanoes progress in age from one end of the chain to the other. The Hawaiian Islands form a typical hotspot chain; the older islands (tens of millions of years old) to the northwest are smaller and more lush than the recently created (400,000 years ago) Hawaii island itself, which is more rocky. Hotspot volcanoes are also known as "intra-plate" volcanoes, and the islands they create are known as Volcanic Ocean Islands. Volcanic arcs do not generally exhibit such a simple age-pattern
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Cascade Volcanoes
The CASCADE VOLCANOES (also known as the CASCADE VOLCANIC ARC or the CASCADE ARC) are a number of volcanoes in a volcanic arc in western North America , extending from southwestern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California , a distance of well over 700 miles (1,100 km). The arc has formed due to subduction along the Cascadia subduction zone . Although taking its name from the Cascade Range , this term is a geologic grouping rather than a geographic one, and the Cascade Volcanoes extend north into the Coast Mountains , past the Fraser River which is the northward limit of the Cascade Range proper. Some of the major cities along the length of the arc include Portland , Seattle , and Vancouver , and the population in the region exceeds 10,000,000 people. All could be potentially affected by volcanic activity and great subduction-zone earthquakes along the arc. Because the population of the Pacific Northwest is rapidly increasing, the Cascade volcanoes are some of the most dangerous, due to their eruptive history and potential for future eruptions, and because they are underlain by weak, hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks that are susceptible to failure
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