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Mount Mazama
MOUNT MAZAMA is a complex volcano in the Oregon
Oregon
segment of the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Cascade Range
Cascade Range
located in the United States . The volcano 's collapsed caldera holds Crater Lake
Crater Lake
, and the entire mountain is located within Crater Lake
Crater Lake
National Park . Its caldera was created by an eruption 42 times greater than the Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980. Mazama's summit was destroyed by a volcanic eruption that occurred around 5677 BC, ± 150 years. The eruption reduced Mazama's approximate 12,000-foot (3,700 m) height by about 1 mile (1,600 m). Much of the volcano fell into the volcano's partially emptied neck and magma chamber . At 8,159 feet (2,487 m), Hillman Peak is now the highest point on the rim
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USGS
The UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (USGS, formerly simply GEOLOGICAL SURVEY) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government . The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States
United States
, its natural resources , and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology , geography , geology , and hydrology . The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior ; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston , Virginia . The USGS also has major offices near Lakewood , Colorado
Colorado
, at the Denver Federal Center , and Menlo Park , California
California

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Charles R. Bacon
CHARLES R. BACON is an American expert in geology at the United States Geological Survey in the Volcano Hazards Team who has done a tremendous amount of work on Crater Lake National Park 's geology. He earned his BS in Geology at Stanford in 1970 and his Ph.D. in Geology from University of California, Berkeley in 1975. His current research interests include physical volcanology , petrology , geochemistry , and eruptive histories of calderas , emphasizing detailed study of Crater Lake, Oregon , and Veniaminof and Aniakchak calderas, Alaska Peninsula. AWARDS * 1987 - L.R. Wager Medal, Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) * 1999 - N.L. Bowen Award, American Geophysical Union * 2003 - Crater Lake Institute Centennial Award for Excellence in Research at Crater Lake National Park * 2004 - U.S
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Pleistocene
The PLEISTOCENE ( /ˈplaɪstəˌsiːn, -toʊ-/ , often colloquially referred to as the ICE AGE) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations . The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period and also with the end of the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age used in archaeology . The Pleistocene
Pleistocene
is the first epoch of the Quaternary Period or sixth epoch of the Cenozoic Era . In the ICS timescale, the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
is divided into four stages or ages , the Gelasian , Calabrian , Ionian and Tarantian . All of these stages were defined in southern Europe . In addition to this international subdivision, various regional subdivisions are often used
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Pyroclastic
PYROCLASTIC ROCKS or PYROCLASTICS (derived from the Greek: πῦρ, meaning fire; and κλαστός, meaning broken) are clastic rocks composed solely or primarily of volcanic materials. Where the volcanic material has been transported and reworked through mechanical action, such as by wind or water, these rocks are termed VOLCANICLASTIC. Commonly associated with unsieved volcanic activity—such as Plinian or krakatoan eruption styles, or phreatomagmatic eruptions—pyroclastic deposits are commonly formed from airborne ash , lapilli and bombs or blocks ejected from the volcano itself, mixed in with shattered country rock . Pyroclastic rocks may be a range of clast sizes, from the largest agglomerates , to very fine ashes and tuffs . Pyroclasts of different sizes are classified as volcanic bombs , lapilli , and volcanic ash . Ash is considered to be pyroclastic because it is a fine dust made up of volcanic rock
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University Of California, Berkeley
Urban Total 1,232 acres (499 ha) Core Campus 178 acres (72 ha) Total land owned 6,679 acres (2,703 ha) COLORS Berkeley Blue, California
California
Gold ATHLETICS NCAA Division I FBS – Pac-12 NICKNAME Golden Bears AFFILIATIONS * University of California
California
system , AAU , IARU , URA , APRU , APLU MASCOT Oski the Bear WEBSITE www.berkeley.eduThe UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY, (also referred to as UC BERKELEY, BERKELEY, CAL, CAL BERKELEY, and CALIFORNIA) is a public research university located in Berkeley , California
California
. Founded in 1868, Berkeley is the oldest of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California
California
system, and is often cited as one of the world's leading research universities and the top public university in the United States
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Howel Williams
HOWEL WILLIAMS (October 12, 1898 – January 12, 1980) was a noted American geologist and volcanologist . He was born of Welsh parents in Liverpool, England , on October 12, 1898. He received a BA in geography in 1923 and an MA in archaeology in 1924 from Liverpool University . He studied geology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London; his twin brother David Williams also became a geologist. Howel Williams moved to the University of California at Berkeley in 1926. In 1928 he was awarded the degree of D.Sc. from the University of Liverpool and published his first papers on the geology of various California volcanic regions. Williams was a member of the National Academy of Sciences . He published many studies on the volcanoes of California, but is most noted for his "The Geology of Crater Lake National Park " in which he recognized the nature of the collapse of the crater and extended the work to develop the principles of volcanic caldera formation
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Ice Age
An ICE AGE is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth
Earth
's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers . Within a long-term ice age, individual pulses of cold climate are termed "glacial periods " (or alternatively "glacials" or "glaciations" or colloquially as "ice age"), and intermittent warm periods are called "interglacials ". In the terminology of glaciology , ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres. By this definition, we are in an interglacial period—the Holocene
Holocene
—of the ice age
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God
In monotheistic thought, GOD is believed to be the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith . The concept of God
God
, as described by theologians , commonly includes the attributes of omniscience (all-knowing), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere), and as having an eternal and necessary existence. Depending on one’s kind of theism, these attributes are used either in way of analogy, or in a literal sense as distinct properties of the God. God
God
is most often held to be incorporeal (immaterial), and to be without gender, although many religions describe God
God
using masculine terminology, using such terms as "Him" or "Father" and some religions (such as Judaism
Judaism
) attribute only a purely grammatical "gender" to God
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Underworld
The UNDERWORLD or NETHERWORLD is an otherworld thought to be deep underground or beneath the surface of the world in most religions and mythologies . Typically, it is a place where the souls of the departed go, an afterlife or a REALM OF THE DEAD. Chthonic is the technical adjective for things of the underworld. CONTENTS * 1 Underworlds by mythology * 2 Underworld figures * 3 See also * 4 References UNDERWORLDS BY MYTHOLOGYThis list includes underworlds in various mythology, with links to corresponding articles
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Shield Volcano
A SHIELD VOLCANO is a type of volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. They are named for their low profile, resembling a warrior\'s shield lying on the ground. This is caused by the highly fluid lava they erupt which travels farther than lava erupted from stratovolcanoes . This results in the steady accumulation of broad sheets of lava, building up the shield volcano's distinctive form. The shape of shield volcanoes is due to the low viscosity of their mafic lava
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Stratovolcano
A STRATOVOLCANO, also known as a COMPOSITE VOLCANO, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava , tephra , pumice , and volcanic ash . Unlike shield volcanoes , stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile and periodic explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions , although some have collapsed craters called calderas . The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic , having high-to-intermediate levels of silica (as in rhyolite , dacite , or andesite ), with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi). Stratovolcanoes are sometimes called "composite volcanoes" because of their composite layered structure built up from sequential outpourings of eruptive materials
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Phreatic Eruption
A PHREATIC ERUPTION, also called a PHREATIC EXPLOSION, ULTRAVULCANIAN ERUPTION or STEAM-BLAST ERUPTION, occurs when magma heats ground or surface water. The extreme temperature of the magma (anywhere from 500 to 1,170 °C (932 to 2,138 °F)) causes near-instantaneous evaporation to steam , resulting in an explosion of steam , water, ash, rock, and volcanic bombs . At Mount St. Helens
Mount St. Helens
, hundreds of steam explosions preceded a 1980 plinian eruption of the volcano . A less intense geothermal event may result in a mud volcano . Phreatic eruptions typically include steam and rock fragments; the inclusion of lava is unusual. The temperature of the fragments can range from cold to incandescent . If molten magma is included, it is classified as a phreatomagmatic eruption . These eruptions occasionally create broad, low-relief craters called maars
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Landslide
A LANDSLIDE, also known as a LANDSLIP, is a form of mass wasting that includes a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls , deep failure of slopes , and shallow debris flows. Landslides can occur underwater, called a submarine landslide , coastal and onshore environments. Although the action of gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, there are other contributing factors affecting the original slope stability . Typically, pre-conditional factors build up specific sub-surface conditions that make the slope area prone to failure, whereas the actual landslide often requires a trigger before being released. Landslides should not be confused with mudflows , a form of mass wasting involving very to extremely rapid flow of debris that has become partially or fully liquefied by the addition of significant amounts of water to the source material
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Rhyodacite
RHYODACITE is an extrusive volcanic rock intermediate in composition between dacite and rhyolite . It is the extrusive equivalent of granodiorite . Phenocrysts of sodium-rich plagioclase , sanidine , quartz , and biotite or hornblende are typically set in an aphanitic to glassy light to intermediate-colored matrix. Rhyodacite
Rhyodacite
is a high silica rock containing 20% to 60% quartz with the remaining constituents being mostly feldspar . The feldspar is a mix of alkaline feldspar and plagioclase, with plagioclase forming 35% to 65% of the mix. Rhyodacite
Rhyodacite
often exists as explosive pyroclastic volcanic deposits. Rhyodacite
Rhyodacite
lava flows occur, for example, in northwestern Ferry County (Washington) , and at An Sgùrr on the island of Eigg in Scotland. REFERENCES Wikimedia Commons has media related to RHYODACITE . * ^ A B "Geologic units containing rhyodacite". usgs.gov
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Steam
STEAM is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils . Steam
Steam
is invisible; however, "steam" often refers to wet steam, the visible mist or aerosol of water droplets formed as this water vapour condenses . At lower pressures, such as in the upper atmosphere or at the top of high mountains, water boils at a lower temperature than the nominal 100 °C (212 °F) at standard pressure . If heated further it becomes superheated steam . The enthalpy of vaporization is the energy required to turn water into the gaseous form when it increases in volume by 1,700 times at standard temperature and pressure; this change in volume can be converted into mechanical work by steam engines such as reciprocating piston type engines and steam turbines , which are a sub-group of steam engines
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